Figure 1: Testicular histology and sperm quality in varicocele. (a) Diameter of the spermatic vein was assessed after 8 weeks in the control group and the varicocele group. (b) Testicular tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin reveal the histopathological changes. Spermatogenic cells are arranged neatly and orderly in a concentric distribution in controls. The deleterious effects (mainly vacuolization of the germinal epithelium as indicated by arrows) are observed in the varicocele group. The scale bar represents 100 μm. (c) The TUNEL assay was performed on the control and varicocele to detect DNA strand breakage in testicular cells. Positive green cells of the TUNEL (+) test are indicated with arrows. The scale bars represent 100 μm. (d) The concentration of SOD was measured in the control and varicocele testes. (e) The concentration of MDA was measured in control and varicocele testes. In the cauda epididymidis, (f) the total sperm number and (g) progressive motility were assessed in control and varicocele. Sample sizes are n = 3 from different rats for each group. Each treatment group compared with the control group, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (t-test). SOD: superoxide dismutase; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling; MDA: malondialdehyde; Con: control group; VC: varicocele group.