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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: A comparison between pregnancy rates of control men and those with ≥4% NF. (a) Men with 0% NF achieved a first pregnancy and live births without IVF in 29.2% of cases. (b) In men with 0% NF who conceived without use of IVF (Panel A), NC occurred in 25% (n = 6/24). (c) Men with 0% NF achieved twenty pregnancies, with 75% not requiring IVF. (d) In men with 0% NF and in whom the first pregnancy was conceived without IVF (n = 7), 100% had successful NCs on subsequent occasions. NF: normal forms; IVF: in vitro fertilization; NC: natural conception; IUI: intrauterine insemination

Figure 1: A comparison between pregnancy rates of control men and those with ≥4% NF. (a) Men with 0% NF achieved a first pregnancy and live births without IVF in 29.2% of cases. (b) In men with 0% NF who conceived without use of IVF (<i>Panel A</i>), NC occurred in 25% (<i>n</i> = 6/24). (c) Men with 0% NF achieved twenty pregnancies, with 75% not requiring IVF. (d) In men with 0% NF and in whom the first pregnancy was conceived without IVF (<i>n</i> = 7), 100% had successful NCs on subsequent occasions. NF: normal forms; IVF: <i>in vitro</i> fertilization; NC: natural conception; IUI: intrauterine insemination