Figure 1: Effects of Panax ginseng on sperm motility parameters. Sperm motility are the results for the normal (N) and P. ginseng-treated (100, 500 and 1000 mg kg −1 ) groups in the presence or absence of 10 mmol l – 1 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid). (a) Sperm motility; (b) curvilinear velocity (μm s −1 ); (c) amplitude of lateral head displacement (ƒÊm) and (d) Ca 2+ levels. *Significantly different from the normal value (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001). #The mean is significantly different from the control value (#P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01).