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   2018| November-December  | Volume 20 | Issue 6  
    Online since October 30, 2018

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Male external genitalia growth curves and charts for children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years in Chongqing, China
Yi-Nan Wang, Qing Zeng, Feng Xiong, Yan Zeng
November-December 2018, 20(6):567-571
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_51_18  PMID:30027932
Genital size is a crucial index for the assessment of male sexual development, as abnormal penile or testicular size may be the earliest visible clinical manifestation of some diseases. However, there is a lack of data regarding penile and testicular size measurements for Chinese boys at all stages of childhood and puberty. This cross-sectional study aimed to develop appropriate growth curves and charts for male external genitalia among children and adolescents aged 0–17 years in Chongqing, China. A total of 2974 boys were enrolled in the present study. Penile length was measured using a rigid ruler, penile diameter was measured using a pachymeter, and testicular volume was determined using a Prader orchidometer. Age-specific percentile curves for penile length, penile diameter, and testicular volume were drawn using the generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape. Very similar growth curves were found for both penile length and penile diameter. Both of them gradually rose to 10 years of age and then sharply increased from 11 to 15 years of age. However, testicular volume changed little before the age of 10 years. This study contributes to the literature covering age-specific growth curve and charts about male external genitalia in Chinese children and adolescents. These age-related values are valuable in evaluating the growth and development status of male external genitalia and could be helpful in diagnosing genital disorders.
  10,926 648 5
Pelvic muscle floor rehabilitation as a therapeutic option in lifelong premature ejaculation: long-term outcomes
Antonio Luigi Pastore, Giovanni Palleschi, Andrea Fuschi, Yazan Al Salhi, Alessandro Zucchi, Giorgio Bozzini, Ester Illiano, Elisabetta Costantini, Antonio Carbone
November-December 2018, 20(6):572-575
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_30_18  PMID:29974885
The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) rehabilitation in males with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE), using intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the self-report Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) as primary outcomes. A total of 154 participants were retrospectively reviewed in this study, with 122 completing the training protocol. At baseline, all participants had an IELT ≤60 s and PEDT score >11. Participants completed a 12-week program of PFM rehabilitation, including physio-kinesiotherapy treatment, electrostimulation, and biofeedback, with three sessions per week, with 20 min for each component completed at each session. The effectiveness of intervention was evaluated by comparing the change in the geometric mean of IELT and PEDT values, from baseline, at 3, 6, and 12 months during the intervention, and at 24 and 36 months postintervention, using a paired sample 2-tailed t-test, including the associated 95% confidence intervals. Of the 122 participants who completed PFM rehabilitation, 111 gained control of their ejaculation reflex, with a mean IELT of 161.6 s and PEDT score of 2.3 at the 12-week endpoint of the intervention, representing an increase from baseline of 40.4 s and 17.0 scores, respectively, for IELT and PEDT (P < 0.0001). Of the 95 participants who completed the 36-month follow-up, 64% and 56% maintained satisfactory ejaculation control at 24 and 36 months postintervention, respectively.
  5,214 659 -
The survival and prognostic factors of primary testicular lymphoma: two-decade single-center experience
Run-Zhuo Ma, Lei Tian, Li-Yuan Tao, Hui-Ying He, Min Li, Min Lu, Lu-Lin Ma, Hui Jiang, Jian Lu
November-December 2018, 20(6):615-620
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_73_18  PMID:30246707
This study aims to investigate the effect of different local testicular treatments and validate common prognostic factors on primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 32 patients from 1993 to 2017 diagnosed with PTL and included 22 patients for analysis. The Kaplan–Meier method, Log-rank test, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were applied to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and determine prognosis predictors. The median follow-up time was 30 months. Median OS and PFS were 96 months and 49 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, advanced Ann Arbor stage (III/IV) (P < 0.001), B symptoms (P < 0.001), and extranodal involvement other than testis (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with shorter OS and PFS. In multivariate analysis, Ann Arbor stage was significantly associated with OS (OR = 11.58, P = 0.049), whereas B symptom was significantly associated with PFS (OR = 11.79, P= 0.049). In the 10 patients with the systemic usage of rituximab, bilateral intervention could improve median OS from 16 to 96 months (P = 0.032). The study provides preliminary evidence on bilateral intervention in testes in the rituximab era and validates common prognostic factors for Chinese PTL patients.
  5,254 380 3
Secondary male hypogonadism: A prevalent but overlooked comorbidity of obesity
Marķa Molina-Vega, Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Miguel Damas-Fuentes, José Carlos Fernández-García, Francisco J Tinahones
November-December 2018, 20(6):531-538
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_44_18  PMID:29974886
Male hypogonadism associated with obesity is a very prevalent condition and is increasing in parallel with the epidemic prevalence of obesity. Low testosterone levels promote higher fat mass with reduced lean mass. Male hypogonadism is related to an increase in associated cardiometabolic complications, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Its influence as a comorbidity of obesity is becoming more evident and should be evaluated and treated in at-risk patients. Mechanisms involved in this relationship include body composition changes, the presence of adipokines, insulin resistance, and other factors, some of which are still unknown. Weight loss and treatment to replace testosterone levels improve the metabolic profile and quality of life in patients with obesity and hypogonadism; these beneficial effects depend on treatment modality and duration of therapy. The use of testosterone replacement therapy may be indicated, as it has not been shown to increase cardiovascular risk, and retrospective studies suggest a reduction in events in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
  4,519 826 8
Evaluation of the long-term safety and effectiveness of tadalafil once daily in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction: interim results of a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial
Hui Jiang, Lian-Ming Zhao, Hao-Cheng Lin, Su Yan, Ji-Hong Liu, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Jin-Dan Luo, Yu-Tian Dai, Fu-Biao Li, Ying Lou, Zhi-Chao Zhang
November-December 2018, 20(6):587-592
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_47_18  PMID:30004039
Once-daily tadalafil administration has been well established; however, studies about tadalafil once-daily treatment in the Chinese population are lacking. In this phase 4, postmarketing study, we ascertained the long-term safety and effectiveness of tadalafil 2.5 mg and 5.0 mg once daily in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction (n = 635). The primary endpoint of the study was safety at 12 months as assessed by the proportion of patients experiencing at least one treatment-emergent adverse event (serious or nonserious). The secondary endpoints included safety and effectiveness, measured by the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain scores. Similar adverse events to the known safety profile of tadalafil, such as nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, and dizziness, were detected. No new cardiovascular safety concerns were observed. After 3 months of treatment, significant increases in IIEF-EF domain scores were detected for both 2.5-mg (least squares [LS] mean change: 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.4–7.1; P < 0.001) and 5.0-mg (LS mean change: 7.4; 95% CI: 6.8–7.9; P < 0.001) tadalafil doses, and significance was maintained up to 12 months. In addition, approximately 40% of patients regained normal erectile function (IIEF-EF ≥26) following 1 year of tadalafil once-daily treatment. The findings in this study provide evidence for the extended effectiveness and tolerability of tadalafil, demonstrating no new safety concerns, in a Chinese population and make once-daily tadalafil administration a viable option for improving sexual performance and satisfaction in Chinese men with erectile dysfunction.
  4,264 517 -
Benefits of orchidopexy on the fertility of adult men with bilateral cryptorchidism
Yan Zhang, Wei Huang, Zheng-Hui Hu, Min Cao, Hong-Shen Wu, Jun-Jie Cao, Fei-Fan Wang, Xiao-Dong Jin
November-December 2018, 20(6):632-633
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_63_18  PMID:30106013
  4,189 382 1
Worsening of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in patients with prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy
Ryo Oka, Takanobu Utsumi, Takumi Endo, Masashi Yano, Shuichi Kamijima, Naoto Kamiya, Hiroyoshi Suzuki
November-December 2018, 20(6):634-636
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_33_18  PMID:29862991
  3,549 231 -
Region-specific microRNA signatures in the human epididymis
James A Browne, Shih-Hsing Leir, Scott E Eggener, Ann Harris
November-December 2018, 20(6):539-544
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_40_18  PMID:30058558
The epithelium of the human epididymis maintains an appropriate luminal environment for sperm maturation that is essential for male fertility. Regional expression of small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs contributes to segment-specific gene expression and differentiated functions. MicroRNA profiles were reported in human epididymal tissues but not specifically in the epithelial cells derived from those regions. Here, we reveal miRNA signatures of primary cultures of caput, corpus, and cauda epididymis epithelial cells and of the tissues from which they were derived. We identify 324 epithelial cell-derived microRNAs and 259 tissue-derived microRNAs in the epididymis, some of which displayed regionalized expression patterns in cells and/or tissues. Caput cell-enriched miRNAs included miR-573 and miR-155. Cauda cell-enriched miRNAs included miR-1204 and miR-770. Next, we determined the gene ontology pathways associated with in silico predicted target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs. The effect of androgen receptor stimulation on miRNA expression was also investigated. These data show novel epithelial cell-derived miRNAs that may regulate the expression of important gene networks that are responsible for the regionalized gene expression and function of the epididymis.
  3,106 481 7
Prior switching to a second-line nonsteroidal antiandrogen does not impact the therapeutic efficacy of abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a real-world retrospective study
Jin-Ge Zhao, Jian-Dong Liu, Peng-Fei Shen, Xin Tang, Guang-Xi Sun, Xing-Ming Zhang, Jun-Ru Chen, Kun-Peng Shu, Ming Shi, Hao Zeng
November-December 2018, 20(6):545-550
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_58_18  PMID:30106011
Even in the era of novel targeted agents, switching to a second-line nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) is still widely used in treating metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), especially in undeveloped countries. However, whether prior treatment with a second-line NSAA would impact the efficacy of abiraterone acetate (Abi) remains uncertain. In the current study, 87 mCRPC patients treated with Abi were analyzed. Among them, 21 were treated with a second-line NSAA (from bicalutamide to flutamide) before receiving abiraterone, while the remaining 66 received Abi directly. Therapeutic efficacy of Abi was compared between those with and without prior second-line NSAA using Kaplan–Meier curves, log-rank test, and Cox regression models. The therapeutic efficacy of Abi was similar between those with or without the prior switching treatment of flutamide, in terms of either prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA-PFS, 5.5 vs 5.6 months, P = 0.967), radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS, 12.8 vs 13.4 months, P = 0.508), overall survival (OS, not reached vs 30.6 months, P = 0.606), or PSA-response rate (71.4% [15/21] vs 60.6% [40/66], P = 0.370). This is the first time that the impact of prior switching of treatment to a second-line NSAA on the efficacy of Abi in mCRPC patients has been addressed. Our data support that, use of prior sequential bicalutamide and flutamide does not seem to preclude response to abiraterone, although larger cohort studies and, ideally, a randomized controlled trial are needed. These findings will facilitate doctors' decision-making in the treatment of mCRPC patients, especially for those with previous experience of switching NSAA second-line treatments in the clinic.
  3,107 440 2
Risk of prostate cancer in men with spinal cord injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Arcangelo Barbonetti, Settimio D'Andrea, Alessio Martorella, Giorgio Felzani, Sandro Francavilla, Felice Francavilla
November-December 2018, 20(6):555-560
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_31_18  PMID:29956686
A lower risk of prostate cancer has been reported in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) as compared to that observed in able-bodied subjects. As injury-related consequences can have opposite effects on prostate pathophysiology, this meta-analysis aimed to (1) establish the existence/quantify the extent of decreased prostate cancer risk following SCI and (2) find out if there is any statistically significant difference in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels between SCI and able-bodied subjects. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases were used. Only studies reporting a prostate cancer diagnosis and/or PSA levels following SCI and in able-bodied controls were included. Five studies provided information about prostate cancer on 35 293 subjects with SCI and 158 140 controls. Six studies were included in PSA analysis which reported information on 391 men with SCI and 1921 controls. Pooled estimates indicated that SCI reduced the prostate cancer risk by approximately 50% as compared to controls, whereas differences in PSA levels were not statistically significant. Funnel plots suggested the presence of publication bias only in PSA analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was established and when, according to meta-regression models, analysis was restricted to studies including men with mean age over 55 years, prostate cancer risk in SCI decreased up to 65.0% than that in controls with no heterogeneity (P = 0.33, I2 = 9%). In conclusion, in men over 55 years old, SCI decreases the prostate cancer risk up to 65.0% than that in controls. The large between-study heterogeneity on PSA confirms its poor reliability as a screening tool for prostate cancer in SCI.
  3,117 382 6
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk classification in predicting biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: a retrospective cohort study in Chinese prostate cancer patients
Hua Xu, Yao Zhu, Bo Dai, Ding-Wei Ye
November-December 2018, 20(6):551-554
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_52_18  PMID:30027928
This study aimed to assess the role of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk classification in predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in Chinese prostate cancer patients. We included a consecutive cohort of 385 patients with prostate cancer who underwent RP at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (Shanghai, China) from March 2011 to December 2014. Gleason grade groups were applied at analysis according to the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus. Risk groups were stratified according to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Prostate Cancer version 1, 2017. All 385 patients were divided into BCR and non-BCR groups. The clinicopathological characteristics were compared using an independent sample t-test, Chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test. BCR-free survival was compared using the log-rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis. During median follow-up of 48 months (range: 1–78 months), 31 (8.05%) patients experienced BCR. The BCR group had higher prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis (46.54 ± 39.58 ng ml-1 vs 21.02 ± 21.06 ng ml−1, P= 0.001), more advanced pT stage (P = 0.002), and higher pN1 rate (P < 0.001). NCCN risk classification was a significant predictor of BCR (P = 0.0006) and BCR-free survival (P = 0.003) after RP. As NCCN risk level increased, there was a significant decreasing trend in BCR-free survival rate (Ptrend = 0.0002). This study confirmed and validated that NCCN risk classification was a significant predictor of BCR and BCR-free survival after RP.
  3,095 402 -
GATA4 mutations are uncommon in patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development without heart anomaly
Maki Igarashi, Kentaro Mizuno, Masafumi Kon, Satoshi Narumi, Yoshiyuki Kojima, Yutaro Hayashi, Tsutomu Ogata, Maki Fukami
November-December 2018, 20(6):629-631
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_20_18  PMID:29735817
  2,960 248 -
The Institute of Urology, Peking University prostatectomy score: a simple preoperative classification of prostate cancer for predicting surgical difficulty and risk
Bing-Lei Ma, Lin Yao, Wei Yu, Yu Wang, Hai-Feng Song, Zhe-Nan Zhang, Si-Meng Lu, Qian Zhang, Zhi-Song He, Jie Jin, Li-Qun Zhou
November-December 2018, 20(6):581-586
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_39_18  PMID:30027927
Traditional laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a treatment choice in many developing countries and regions for most patients with localized prostate cancer; however, no system for predicting surgical difficulty and risk has been established. This study aimed to propose a simple and standard preoperative classification system of prostate cancer using preoperative data to predict surgical difficulty and risk and to evaluate the relationship between the data and postoperative complications. We collected data from 236 patients and divided them into three groups to evaluate and validate the relationships among preoperative, operative, and postoperative data. This new scoring system is based on the body mass index, ultrasonic prostate volume, preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, middle lobe protrusion, and clinical stage. In the scoring group, we classified 89 patients into two groups: the low-risk group (score of <4) and high-risk group (score of ≥4), and then compared the postoperative data between the two groups. The positive surgical margin rate was higher in the high-risk group than low-risk group. The results in validation Groups A and B were similar to those in the scoring group. The focus of our scoring system is to allow for preliminary assessment of surgical difficulty by collecting the patients' basic information. Urologists can easily use the scoring system to evaluate the surgical difficulty and predict the risks of a positive surgical margin and urinary incontinence in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
  2,717 313 -
A novel experience of deferential vessel-sparing microsurgical vasoepididymostomy
Kun-Long Lyu, Jin-Tao Zhuang, Philip S Li, Yong Gao, Liang Zhao, Ya-Dong Zhang, Ming-Kuan Zhou, Jing-Wei Yu, Xin Feng, Xiang-Zhou Sun, Chun-Hua Deng, Xiang-An Tu
November-December 2018, 20(6):576-580
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_46_18  PMID:29974884
Microsurgical longitudinal intussusception vasoepididymostomy (LIVE) has been widely used to treat epididymal obstructive azoospermia since 2004. Although the deferential vasculature plays an important role in supplying blood to the testis and epididymis, little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of sparing the deferential vessels during the anastomosis in LIVE. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of deferential vessel-sparing LIVE in humans. From December 2013 to December 2015, 69 azoospermic men with epididymal obstruction due to a genital infection, trauma, or idiopathic factors underwent deferential vessel-sparing LIVE in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. The outcomes of these patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age was 31.1 years for men and 28.3 years for their partners. Fifty-nine (85.5%, 59/69) men were followed up after surgery for approximately 16 months. Patency was noted and confirmed by semen analysis (>10 000 sperm/ml) in 83.1% (49/59) of men. The natural pregnancy rate was 40.7% (24/59) by the end of the study, with 87.5% (21/24) of these natural pregnancies achieved within 12 months after surgery. No severe adverse events or complications were observed. In this study, we present a novel technique for sparing the deferential vessels during LIVE. The preliminary outcomes show this technique to be safe with favorable patency and pregnancy rates.
  2,623 386 1
Prognostic role of chromogranin A in castration-resistant prostate cancer: A meta-analysis
Peng Hong, Run-Qi Guo, Gang Song, Kai-Wei Yang, Lei Zhang, Xue-Song Li, Kai Zhang, Li-Qun Zhou
November-December 2018, 20(6):561-566
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_57_18  PMID:30084431
We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of chromogranin A (CgA) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE for citations published prior to September 2017 that described CgA and CRPC and performed a standard meta-analysis on survival outcomes. Our meta-analysis included eight eligible studies with 686 patients. The results were as follows: progression-free survival (PFS) was associated with CgA level (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47–4.14, P = 0.0006); PFS was relative to CgA change (HR = 9.22, 95% CI: 3.03–28.05, P < 0.0001); and overall survival (OS) was relative to CgA level (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.15–1.87, P = 0.002). When we divided the patients into two groups according to therapy status, the result for OS relative to CgA level was an HR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09–1.45, P = 0.001) in the first-line hormonal therapy group, and an HR of 2.33 (95% CI: 1.40–3.89, P = 0.001) in the second-line hormonal therapy or chemotherapy group. This meta-analysis indicated that a high CgA level had a negative influence on OS and PFS in CRPC patients. In addition, CRPC patients with a rising CgA had a shorter PFS. Further studies are needed to verify the prognostic value of CgA in CRPC.
  2,633 335 1
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 mediates prostate cancer cell migration and invasion through hedgehog signaling
Qing-Qing Yin, Lin-Hui Xu, Mi Zhang, Chen Xu
November-December 2018, 20(6):608-614
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_55_18  PMID:30027929
The autonomic nervous system contributes to prostate cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 (CHRM1) expression was measured via immunohistochemical analysis in human prostate cancer tissue array slides. PC-3, LNCaP, and A549 cells were treated with pirenzepine or carbachol, and the cell migration and invasion abilities were evaluated. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were performed to measure GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1), patched 1 (PTCH1), and sonic hedgehog (SHH) expression levels. High expression of CHRM1 was found in early-stage human prostate cancer tissues. In addition, the selective CHRM1 antagonist pirenzepine inhibited PC-3, LNCaP, and A549 cell migration and invasion, but the agonist carbachol promoted the migration and invasion of these three cell lines. Muscarinic signaling can be relayed by hedgehog signaling. These data show that CHRM1 is involved in the regulation of prostate cancer migration and invasion through the hedgehog signaling pathway.
  2,449 374 7
Genes associated with testicular germ cell tumors and testicular dysgenesis in patients with testicular microlithiasis
Ilya S Dantsev, Evgeniy V Ivkin, Aleksey A Tryakin, Dmitriy N Godlevski, Oleg Yu Latyshev, Victoriya V Rudenko, Dmitry S Mikhaylenko, Vyacheslav B Chernykh, Elena A Volodko, Aleksey B Okulov, Oleg B Loran, Marina V Nemtsova
November-December 2018, 20(6):593-599
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_54_18  PMID:30027931
Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is one of the symptoms of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TM is particularly interesting as an informative marker of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). KIT ligand gene (KITLG), BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 (BAK1), and sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 4 (SPRY4) genes are associated with a high risk of TGCTs, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene (BMP7), transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 gene (TGFBR3), and homeobox D cluster genes (HOXD) are related to TDS. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, we investigated allele and genotype frequencies for KITLG (rs995030, rs1508595), SPRY4 (rs4624820, rs6897876), BAK1 (rs210138), BMP7 (rs388286), TGFBR3 (rs12082710), and HOXD (rs17198432) in 142 TGCT patients, 137 TM patients, and 153 fertile men (control group). We found significant differences in the KITLG GG_rs995030 genotype in TM (P = 0.01) and TGCT patients (P = 0.0005) compared with the control. We also revealed strong associations between KITLG_rs1508595 and TM (G allele, P = 0.003; GG genotype, P = 0.01) and between KITLG_rs1508595 and TGCTs (G allele, P = 0.0001; GG genotype, P = 0.0007). Moreover, there was a significant difference in BMP7_rs388286 between the TGCT group and the control (T allele, P = 0.00004; TT genotype, P = 0.00006) and between the TM group and the control (T allele, P = 0.04). HOXD also demonstrated a strong association with TGCTs (rs17198432 A allele, P = 0.0001; AA genotype, P = 0.001). Furthermore, significant differences were found between the TGCT group and the control in the BAK1_rs210138 G allele (P = 0.03) and the GG genotype (P = 0.01). KITLG and BMP7 genes, associated with the development of TGCTs, may also be related to TM. In summary, the KITLG GG_rs995030, GG_rs1508595, BMP7 TT_rs388286, HOXD AA_rs17198432, and BAK1 GG_rs210138 genotypes were associated with a high risk of TGCT development.
  2,401 383 5
Nitrosative stress in human spermatozoa causes cell death characterized by induction of mitochondrial permeability transition-driven necrosis
Pamela Uribe, María E Cabrillana, Miguel W Fornés, Favián Treulen, Rodrigo Boguen, Vladimir Isachenko, Evgenia Isachenko, Raúl Sánchez, Juana V Villegas
November-December 2018, 20(6):600-607
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_29_18  PMID:29956685
Peroxynitrite is a highly reactive nitrogen species and a potent inducer of apoptosis and necrosis in somatic cells. Peroxynitrite-induced nitrosative stress has emerged as a major cause of impaired sperm function; however, its ability to trigger cell death has not been described in human spermatozoa. The objective here was to characterize biochemical and morphological features of cell death induced by peroxynitrite-mediated nitrosative stress in human spermatozoa. For this, spermatozoa were incubated with and without (untreated control) 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), in order to generate peroxynitrite. Sperm viability, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA oxidation and fragmentation, caspase activation, tyrosine nitration, and sperm ultrastructure were analyzed. The results showed that at 24 h of incubation with SIN-1, the sperm viability was significantly reduced compared to untreated control (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the MPT was induced (P < 0.01) and increment in DNA oxidation (P < 0.01), DNA fragmentation (P < 0.01), tyrosine nitration (P < 0.0001) and ultrastructural damage were observed when compared to untreated control. Caspase activation was not evidenced, and although phosphatidylserine externalization increased compared to untreated control (P < 0.001), this process was observed in <10% of the cells and the gradual loss of viability was not characterized by an important increase in this parameter. In conclusion, peroxynitrite-mediated nitrosative stress induces the regulated variant of cell death known as MPT-driven necrosis in human spermatozoa. This study provides a new insight into the pathophysiology of nitrosative stress in human spermatozoa and opens up a new focus for developing specific therapeutic strategies to better preserve sperm viability or to avoid cell death.
  2,208 400 7
Clinical outcomes of transperitoneal laparoscopic unroofing and fenestration under seminal vesiculoscopy for seminal vesicle cysts
Rui-Zhi Xue, Zheng-Yan Tang, Zhi Chen, Liang Huang
November-December 2018, 20(6):621-625
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_62_18  PMID:30136659
Symptomatic seminal vesicle cysts (SVCs), especially those of a large size, can be removed by surgical treatments. Currently, open surgeries for SVC are rarely performed due to their extensive surgical trauma, and minimally invasive surgical therapies for treating seminal vesicle cysts are still in the early stages. In addition, relevant studies are mostly confined to case reports. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 53 patients who had received transperitoneal laparoscopic unroofing or fenestration under seminal vesiculoscopy for SVC in our institution. Both surgeries decreased the cyst volume to a significant extent; however, according to the remnant lesion size after rechecking images, seminal vesiculoscopic fenestration tended to have a higher recurrence than laparoscopic unroofing. Regarding complications, two individuals in the laparoscopic unroofing group experienced ureteral injury and rectal injury, while patients in the fenestration group only had temporary hemospermia, which indicates that fenestration surgery tends to have less severe complications than laparoscopic unroofing. There was no solid evidence confirming semen improvement after these surgical therapies in our study. Future studies with a prospective design, larger sample size, and longer follow-up period are required to verify and further explore our findings.
  1,820 321 -
Unpaired sex chromosomes in metaphase I human spermatocytes locally modify autosomal bivalents positioning
Carla Mayans, Joan Blanco, Oliver Valero, Francesca Vidal, Zaida Sarrate
November-December 2018, 20(6):626-628
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_45_18  PMID:29956687
  1,819 255 1