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   2018| September-October  | Volume 20 | Issue 5  
    Online since August 21, 2018

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Repeated penile girth enhancement with biodegradable scaffolds: Microscopic ultrastructural analysis and surgical benefits
Miroslav L Djordjevic, Uros Bumbasirevic, Borko Stojanovic, Tamara Kravic Stevovic, Tamara Martinovic, Marta Bizic, Vladimir Kojovic
September-October 2018, 20(5):488-492
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_35_18  PMID:29862992
Autologous tissue engineering using biodegradable scaffolds as a carrier is a well-known procedure for penile girth enhancement. We evaluated a group of previously treated patients with the aim to analyze histomorphometric changes after tissue remodeling and to estimate the benefits of repeated procedure. Between February 2012 and December 2016, a group of 21 patients, aged 22–37 (mean 28.0) years, underwent a repeated penile girth enhancement procedure with biodegradable scaffolds. Procedure included insertion of two poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds seeded with laboratory-prepared fibroblasts from scrotal tissue specimens. During this procedure, biopsy specimens of tissue formed after the first surgery were taken for microscopic analysis. The mean follow-up was 38 months. Connective tissue with an abundance of connective tissue fibers, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells were observed in all analyzed surgically removed tissue. Ultrastructural analysis of these tissue samples discovered the presence of large quantities of collagen fibrils running parallel to each other, forming bundles, with a few widely spread fibroblasts. In total, the mean values of flaccid and erect gain in girth after the second surgery were 1.1 ± 0.4 (range: 0.6–1.7) cm and 1.0 ± 0.3 (range: 0.6–1.5) cm, respectively. Microscopic evaluation of newly formed tissue, induced by autologous tissue engineering using biodegradable scaffolds, showed the presence of vascularized loose connective tissue with an abundance of collagen fibers, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells, indicating active neovascularization and fibrinogenesis. The benefit of the repeated enhancement procedure was statistically significant.
  10,101 321 -
Treatment strategy for metastatic prostate cancer with extremely high PSA level: reconsidering the value of vintage therapy
Yasutaka Yamada, Shinichi Sakamoto, Yoshiyasu Amiya, Makoto Sasaki, Takayuki Shima, Akira Komiya, Noriyuki Suzuki, Koichiro Akakura, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Hiroomi Nakatsu
September-October 2018, 20(5):432-437
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_24_18  PMID:29735818
The prognostic significance of initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level for metastatic prostate cancer remains uncertain. We investigated the differences in prognosis and response to hormonal therapies of metastatic prostate cancer patients according to initial PSA levels. We analyzed 184 patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer and divided them into three PSA level groups as follows: low (<100 ng ml−1), intermediate (100–999 ng ml−1), and high (≥1000 ng ml−1). All patients received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) immediately. We investigated PSA progression-free survival (PFS) for first-line ADT and overall survival (OS) within each of the three groups. Furthermore, we analyzed response to antiandrogen withdrawal (AW) and alternative antiandrogen (AA) therapies after development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). No significant differences in OS were observed among the three groups (P = 0.654). Patients with high PSA levels had significantly short PFS for first-line ADT (P = 0.037). Conversely, patients in the high PSA level group had significantly longer PFS when treated with AW than those in the low PSA level group (P = 0.047). Furthermore, patients with high PSA levels had significantly longer PFS when provided with AA therapy (P = 0.049). PSA responders to AW and AA therapies had significantly longer survival after CRPC development than nonresponders (P = 0.011 and P < 0.001, respectively). Thus, extremely high PSA level predicted favorable response to vintage sequential ADT and AW. The current data suggest a novel aspect of extremely high PSA value as a favorable prognostic marker after development of CRPC.
  8,047 499 5
The risk of human papillomavirus infection for male fertility abnormality: a meta-analysis
Yi-Quan Xiong, Yan-Xia Chen, Ming-Ji Cheng, Wen-Qiao He, Qing Chen
September-October 2018, 20(5):493-497
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_77_17  PMID:29623908
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in males and females worldwide; yet its impact upon male fertility remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of HPV infection in semen on male fertility abnormality. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database for relevant publications up to May 6, 2017. The odds ratio (OR), and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), was selected to represent the effect size. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0. In total, eight articles, providing data on 1955 participants, were included in this meta-analysis. Collectively, the data suggested that HPV infection of semen was a risk factor for male fertility abnormality with an OR of 3.02 (95% CI: 2.11–4.32; I2 = 6.9%). Sensitivity analysis revealed that the results of this study were robust. In conclusion, HPV infection of semen represents a risk factor for male fertility abnormality.
  5,367 414 9
The corpus cavernosum after treatment with dutasteride or finasteride: A histomorphometric study in a benign prostatic hyperplasia rodent model
Marcello H A Da Silva, Waldemar S Costa, Francisco J B Sampaio, Diogo B De Souza
September-October 2018, 20(5):505-510
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_28_18  PMID:29893293
Erectile dysfunction is a common side effect of finasteride and dutasteride treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the structural changes in the penis using a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) rodent model treated with dutasteride or finasteride. Sixty male rats were divided into the following groups: C, untreated control rats; C + D, control rats receiving dutasteride; C + F, control rats receiving finasteride; H, untreated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs); H + D, SHRs treated with dutasteride; and H + F, SHRs treated with finasteride. Treatments were performed for 40 days, and penises were collected immediately thereafter. The organs were analyzed using histomorphometric methods to determine the cross-sectional penile area, as well as the surface density (Sv) of smooth muscle fibers, connective tissue, elastic system fibers, and sinusoidal spaces of the corpus cavernosum. The results were compared using a one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's posttest. Groups C + D and C + F had a significantly smaller penile cross-sectional area, but more elastic system fiber Sv compared to Group C. Group C + D showed less smooth muscle Sv, and Group H showed more connective tissue but a smaller sinusoidal space Sv in the corpus cavernosum compared to Group C. Groups H + D and H + F had less smooth muscle Sv than Group H. Group H + D also had more connective tissue and elastic system fiber Sv than Group H. Both dutasteride and finasteride promoted penile modifications in the control rat penis, although this affect was greater in Group H animals. In this rodent model, dutasteride was the drug that most affected the corpus cavernosum.
  5,089 363 2
Using the prostate imaging reporting and data system version 2 (PI-RIDS v2) to detect prostate cancer can prevent unnecessary biopsies and invasive treatment
Chang Liu, Shi-Liang Liu, Zhi-Xian Wang, Kai Yu, Chun-Xiang Feng, Zan Ke, Liang Wang, Xiao-Yong Zeng
September-October 2018, 20(5):459-464
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_19_18  PMID:29667616
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers among men globally. The authors aimed to evaluate the ability of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) to classify men with PCa, clinically significant PCa (CSPCa), or no PCa, especially among those with serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels in the “gray zone” (4–10 ng ml−1). A total of 308 patients (355 lesions) were enrolled in this study. Diagnostic efficiency was determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and decision curve analysis were performed to determine and compare the predictors of PCa and CSPCa. The results suggested that PI-RADS v2, tPSA, and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) were independent predictors of PCa and CSPCa. A PI-RADS v2 score ≥4 provided high negative predictive values (91.39% for PCa and 95.69% for CSPCa). A model of PI-RADS combined with PSA and PSAD helped to define a high-risk group (PI-RADS score = 5 and PSAD ≥0.15 ng ml-1 cm-3, with tPSA in the gray zone, or PI-RADS score ≥4 with high tPSA level) with a detection rate of 96.1% for PCa and 93.0% for CSPCa while a low-risk group with a detection rate of 6.1% for PCa and 2.2% for CSPCa. It was concluded that the PI-RADS v2 could be used as a reliable and independent predictor of PCa and CSPCa. The combination of PI-RADS v2 score with PSA and PSAD could be helpful in the prediction and diagnosis of PCa and CSPCa and, thus, may help in preventing unnecessary invasive procedures.
  4,944 393 6
Combination of stromal vascular fraction and Ad-COMP-Ang1 gene therapy improves long-term therapeutic efficacy for diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction
Guo-Nan Yin, Lin Wang, Xiang-Nan Lin, Lei Shi, Zhen-Lin Gao, Feng-Chan Han, Ping Li, Yin-Chuan Jin, Jun-Kyu Suh, Ji-Kan Ryu, Xiong Wang, Hai-Rong Jin
September-October 2018, 20(5):465-472
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_16_18  PMID:29667617
Men with diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED) respond poorly to the currently available oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Therefore, functional therapies for diabetic ED are needed. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the adenovirus-mediated cartilage oligomeric matrix angiopoietin-1 (Ad-COMP-Ang1) gene are known to play critical roles in penile erection. We previously reported that SVF and Ad-COMP-Ang1 have only a short-term effect in restoring erectile function. Further improvements to ED therapy are needed for long-lasting effects. In the present study, we aimed to test if the combination of SVF and Ad-COMP-Ang1 could extend the erection effect in diabetic ED. We found that the combination therapy showed a long-term effect in restoring erectile function through enhanced penile endothelial and neural cell regeneration. Combination therapy with SVF and Ad-COMP-Ang1 notably restored cavernous endothelial cell numbers, pericyte numbers, endothelial cell–cell junctions, decreased cavernous endothelial cell permeability, and promoted neural regeneration for at least 4 weeks in diabetic mice. In summary, this is an initial description of the long-term effect of combination therapy with SVF and Ad-COMP-Ang1 in restoring erectile function through a dual effect on endothelial and neural cell regeneration. Such combination therapy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic ED.
  4,906 364 1
Recurrent paratesticular dedifferentiated liposarcoma after contralateral radical orchiectomy
Jin Wang, Yi-Peng Du, Sheng-Xian Li, Jing-Hai Hu, Chun-Xi Wang
September-October 2018, 20(5):520-522
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_18_18  PMID:29623907
  4,998 262 -
Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) plays important roles in many stages of spermatogenesis
Hai-Tao Ma, Chang-Min Niu, Jing Xia, Xue-Yi Shen, Meng-Meng Xia, Yan-Qiu Hu, Ying Zheng
September-October 2018, 20(5):479-487
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_26_18  PMID:29848833
To clarify the functions and mechanism of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) in spermatogenesis, we analyzed the testes from Stra8 knockout and wild-type mice during the first wave of spermatogenesis. Comparisons showed no significant differences in morphology and number of germ cells at 11 days postpartum, while 21 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with spermatogenesis were identified. We speculate that Stra8 performs many functions in different phases of spermatogenesis, such as establishment of spermatogonial stem cells, spermatogonial proliferation and self-renewal, spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis, through direct or indirect regulation of these DEGs. We therefore established a preliminary regulatory network of Stra8 during spermatogenesis. These results will provide a theoretical basis for further research on the mechanism underlying the role of Stra8 in spermatogenesis.
  4,560 411 10
Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of androgen insensitivity syndrome patients
Shi-Min Yuan, Ya-Nan Zhang, Juan Du, Wen Li, Chao-Feng Tu, Lan-Lan Meng, Ge Lin, Guang-Xiu Lu, Yue-Qiu Tan
September-October 2018, 20(5):473-478
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_17_18  PMID:29785970
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), an X-linked recessive genetic disorder of sex development, is caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, and is characterized by partial or complete inability of specific tissues to respond to androgens in individuals with the 46,XY karyotype. This study aimed to investigate AR gene mutations and to characterize genotype–phenotype correlations. Ten patients from unrelated families, aged 2–31 years, were recruited in the study. Based on karyotype, altered hormone profile, and clinical manifestations, nine patients were preliminarily diagnosed with complete AIS and one with partial AIS. Genetic analysis of AR gene revealed the existence of 10 different mutations, of which five were novel (c.2112 C>G[p.S704R], c.2290T>A[p.Y764N], c.2626C>T[p.Q876X], c.933dupC[p.K313Qfs*28], and c.1067delC[p.A356Efs*123]); the other five were previously reported (c.1789G>A[p.A597T], c.2566C>T[p.R856C], c.2668G>A[p.V890M], c.2679C>T[p.P893L], and c.1605C>G[p.Y535X]). Regarding the distribution of these mutations, 60.0% were clustered in the ligand-binding domain of AR gene. Exons 1 and 8 of AR gene each accounted for 30.0% (3/10) of all mutations. Most of the truncation mutations were in exon 1 and missense mutations were mainly located in exons 4–8. Our study expands the spectrum of AR gene mutations and confirms the usefulness of AR gene sequencing to support a diagnosis of AIS and to enable prenatal or antenatal screening.
  4,525 398 3
Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy for recurrent hemospermia: experience from 419 cases
Rui Chen, Lei Wang, Xia Sheng, Shu-Guang Piao, Xin-Wen Nian, Xin Cheng, Tie Zhou, Hui-Zhen Li, Ya-Wei Liu, Guang-Hua Chen, Chun-Lei Zhang, De-Pei Kong, Guang-An Xiao, Xin Lu, Zhen-Yu Jia, Zhi-Yong Liu, Ying-Hao Sun
September-October 2018, 20(5):438-441
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_76_17  PMID:29735816
We summarized our experience in transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (TSV) for recurrent hemospermia by introducing surgical techniques, intraoperative findings, and treatment outcomes. TSV was performed in 419 patients with an initial diagnosis of persistent hemospermia at Shanghai Changhai Hospital (Shanghai, China) from May 2007 to November 2015. TSV was successfully performed in 381 cases (90.9%). Hemospermia was alleviated or disappeared in 324 (85.0%) patients by 3 months after surgery. Common intraoperative manifestations were bleeding, obstruction or stenosis, mucosal lesions, and calculus. Endoscopic presentation of the ejaculatory duct orifice and the verumontanum was categorized into four types, including 8 (1.9%), 32 (7.6%), 341 (81.4%), and 38 (9.1%) cases in Types A, B, C, and D, respectively. TSV is an effective and safe procedure in the management of seminal tract disorders. This study may help other surgeons to become familiar with and improve this procedure. However, further multicentric clinical trials are warranted to validate these findings.
  4,320 492 6
Sperm origins and concentration do not impact the clinical outcomes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles
Cen Yang, Ze-Hong Zhou, Dan-Ni Zheng, Xiao-Fei Xu, Jin Huang, Ying Lian, Jie Qiao
September-October 2018, 20(5):454-458
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_27_18  PMID:29798938
In the present study, we evaluated the impact of sperm origins and concentration on the clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1201 ICSI cycles were retrospectively analyzed for male azoospermia or oligozoospermia between January 2015 and December 2015 in the Peking University Third Hospital. Patients were divided into three groups (Group 1 vs Group 2/3; surgically extracted sperm vs ejaculated sperms): Group 1 included 343 ICSI cycles and Group 2 analyzed 388 cycles on semen with sperm concentration <5 × 106 ml−1 (severe oligozoospermia group). Group 3 included 470 cycles with sperm concentration between 5 × 106 ml−1 and 15 × 106 ml−1 (mild oligozoospermia group). Fertilization rates, clinical pregnancy rates, and live birth rates were analyzed and compared among groups of different semen origins and concentrations on the oocyte retrieval day. Group 2 showed a lower fertilization rate than Group 3 (62.9% ± 21.6% vs 66.8% ± 22.1%,P< 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (51.3%, 46.7%, and 50.0%, respectively), live birth rate per transfer (44.4%, 40.9%, and 41.4%, respectively), accumulative live birth rate (58.3%, 51.0%, and 52.1%, respectively), twin birth rate (18.4%, 10.6%, and 12.6%, respectively), and birth defects rate (0, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively) among three groups. The results of this study indicated that sperm origins and concentration do not impact the clinical outcomes in ICSI cycles.
  3,942 334 1
Human sperm testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme helps determine human embryo quality
Marta Gianzo, Itziar Urizar-Arenaza, Iraia Muñoa-Hoyos, Zaloa Larreategui, Nicolás Garrido, Luis Casis, Jon Irazusta, Nerea Subirán
September-October 2018, 20(5):498-504
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_25_18  PMID:29873314
Angiotensin-converting enzyme functions in the male reproductive system, but the extent of its function in reproduction is not fully understood. The primary objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between the testicular isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme present in human spermatozoa and semen parameters, human embryo quality, and assisted reproduction success. A total of 81 semen samples and 635 embryos from couples undergoing oocyte donation cycles at the IVI Bilbao Clinic were analyzed. Semen parameters, embryos quality, and blastocyst development were examined according to the World Health Organization standards and the Spanish Association of Reproduction Biology Studies criteria. The percentage of testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme-positive spermatozoa and the number of molecules per spermatozoon were analyzed by flow cytometry. Both parameters were inversely correlated with human sperm motility. Higher percentages of testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme-positive spermatozoa together with fewer enzyme molecules per spermatozoon were positively correlated with better embryo quality and development. Our results suggest that embryos with a higher implantation potential come from semen samples with higher percentages of testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme-positive cells and fewer enzyme molecules per spermatozoon. Based on these findings, we propose that testicular angiotensin-converting enzyme could be used to aid embryologists in selecting better semen samples for obtaining high-quality blastocysts during in vitro fertilization procedures.
  3,823 341 4
Increased expression of PELP1 in human sperm is correlated with decreased semen quality
Izabela Skibinska, Miroslaw Andrusiewicz, Michal Soin, Magdalena Jendraszak, Paulina Urbaniak, Piotr Jedrzejczak, Malgorzata Kotwicka
September-October 2018, 20(5):425-431
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_11_18  PMID:29676290
Proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a scaffolding protein involved in both genomic and nongenomic estrogen signal transduction pathways. To date, the role of PELP1 protein has yet to be characterized in human sperm and has not been associated with sperm parameters. To confirm the presence of PELP1 in human sperm, fresh semen samples were obtained from 178 donors. The study was designed to establish both mRNA and protein presence, and protein cellular localization. Additionally, the number of PELP1-positive spermatozoa was analyzed in men with normal and abnormal semen parameters. Sperm parameters were assessed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 standards. The presence of PELP1 in spermatozoa was investigated using four precise, independent techniques. The qualitative presence of transcripts and protein was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot protocols, respectively. The cellular localization of PELP1 was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Quantitative analysis of PELP1-positive cells was done by flow cytometry. PELP1 mRNA and protein was confirmed in spermatozoa. Immunocytochemical analysis identified the presence of PELP1 in the midpieces of human sperm irrespective of sperm parameters. Becton Dickinson fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACSCalibur™) analysis revealed a significantly lower number of PELP1-positive cells in males with normal semen parameters versus abnormal samples (42.78% ± 11.77% vs 61.05% ± 21.70%, respectively; P = 0.014). The assessment of PELP1 may be a time-saving method used to obtain information about sperm quality. The results of our study suggest that PEPL1 may be utilized as an indicator of sperm quality; thereby, PELP1 may be an additional biomarker useful in the evaluation of male infertility.
  3,611 526 3
Identification of a novel mutation in the SRD5A2 gene of one patient with 46,XY disorder of sex development
Shu-Ping Li, Li-Wei Li, Ming-Xia Sun, Xin-Xin Chen, Xiu-Feng Wang, Zeng-Kui Li, Sheng-Yun Zhou, Dong-Cai Zhai, Shu-Xia Geng, Shu-Jun Li, Xiao-Wei Dou
September-October 2018, 20(5):518-519
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_34_18  PMID:29798939
  3,616 224 -
Anejaculation in a patient with Charcot–Marie–Tooth
Rossella Cannarella, Giovanni Burgio, Sandro La Vignera, Enzo S Vicari, Aldo E Calogero
September-October 2018, 20(5):529-530
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_75_17  PMID:29516875
  3,531 234 1
Sperm concentration measurement with a disposable counting chamber
Mathilde Lemoine, Xavier Ferraretto, Marie-Astrid Llabador-de Royer, Achraf Benammar, Jacques Darolles, Sylvie Epelboin, Florence Eustache, Catherine Patrat
September-October 2018, 20(5):525-526
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_72_17  PMID:29516874
  3,292 343 1
Pancreatic kininogenase improves erectile function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats with erectile dysfunction
Guo-Tao Chen, Bai-Bing Yang, Jian-Huai Chen, Zheng Zhang, Lei-Lei Zhu, He-Song Jiang, Wen Yu, Yun Chen, Yu-Tian Dai
September-October 2018, 20(5):448-453
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_23_18  PMID:29676291
Erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type 2 diabetes is a severe problem that requires effective treatment. Pancreatic kininogenase (PK) has the potential to improve the erectile function of ED patients. This study aims to investigate the effect of PK on erectile function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic ED rats. To achieve this goal, we divided male Sprague–Dawley rats into five groups. One group was not treated, and the other four groups were treated with saline, sildenafil, PK or sildenafil, and PK, respectively, for 4 weeks after the induction of type 2 diabetic ED. Then, intracavernous pressure under cavernous nerve stimulation was measured, and penile tissue was collected for further study. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels, smooth muscle content, endothelium content, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the corpus cavernosum, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase levels in the dorsal penile nerve were measured. Improved erectile function and endothelium and smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum were observed in diabetic ED rats. When treating diabetic ED rats with PK and sildenafil at the same time, a better therapeutic effect was achieved. These data demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of PK can improve erectile function in a rat model of type 2 diabetic ED. With further research on specific mechanisms of erectile function improvement, PK may become a novel treatment for diabetic ED.
  3,215 400 1
An association study of the single-nucleotide polymorphism c190C>T (Arg64Cys) in the human testis-specific histone variant, H3t, of Japanese patients with Sertoli cell-only syndrome
Toshinobu Miyamoto, Masashi Iijima, Takeshi Shin, Gaku Minase, Hiroto Ueda, Yasuaki Saijo, Hiroshi Okada, Kazuo Sengoku
September-October 2018, 20(5):527-528
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_66_17  PMID:29405169
  2,828 271 1
Nanotechnology-assisted adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) therapy for erectile dysfunction of cavernous nerve injury: In vivo cell tracking, optimized injection dosage, and functional evaluation
Han Wu, Wen-Hao Tang, Lian-Ming Zhao, De-Feng Liu, Yu-Zhuo Yang, Hai-Tao Zhang, Zhe Zhang, Kai Hong, Hao-Cheng Lin, Hui Jiang
September-October 2018, 20(5):442-447
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_48_18  PMID:30004040
Stem cell therapy is a potentially promising option for erectile dysfunction; however, its risk of tumorigenicity is a clinical hurdle and the risk is positively related to the number of injected cells. Our previous study showed that nanotechnology improved adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) therapy for erectile dysfunction of cavernous nerve injury (CNI) by attracting cells in the corpus cavernosum. These results indicated the possibility of using a reduced dosage of ADSCs for intracavernous injection. In this exploratory study, we used lower dosage (2 × 105 cells) of ADSCs for intracavernous injection (ICI) and the nanotechnology approach. Intracavernous pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured at day 28 to assess erectile function. The low-dose ADSC therapy group showed favorable treatment effects, and nanotechnology further improved these effects. In vivo imaging of ICI cells revealed that the fluorescein signals of NanoShuttle-bound ADSCs (NanoADSCs) were much stronger than those of ADSCs at days 0, 1, and 3. Both immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in smooth muscle, endothelium, and nerve tissue in the ADSC group compared to that in the CNI group; further improvement was achieved with assisted nanotechnology. These findings demonstrate that nanotechnology can be used to further improve the effect of small dosage of ADSCs to improve erectile function. Abundant NanoADSCs remain in the corpus cavernosum in vivo for at least 3 days. The mechanism of erectile function improvement may be related to the regeneration of the smooth muscle, endothelium, and nerve tissues.
  2,553 400 7
The novel long noncoding RNA LOC283070 is involved in the transition of LNCaP cells into androgen-independent cells via its interaction with PHB2
Ying Zhang, Li-Na Wang, Ya-Ni Lin, Yuan-Xin Xing, Yu Shi, Jian Zhao, Wei-Wen Chen, Bo Han
September-October 2018, 20(5):511-517
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_36_18  PMID:29956684
We sought to investigate the underlying mechanism of action of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) LOC283070 in the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer. The interactions between LOC283070 and target proteins were investigated by RNA pull-down and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. Subcellular fractionation and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to detect the subcellular localization of LOC283070. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of prohibitin 2 (PHB2). Luciferase activity assays were performed to evaluate the effects of LOC283070 and PHB2 on the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and a growth curve assay were used to test cell viability. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell cycles. A transwell assay was employed to test cell migration. We identified PHB2 as an interaction partner of LOC283070 in the pull-down and RIP experiments. Furthermore, we confirmed that the enrichment of LOC283070 with PHB2 in androgen-independent LNCaP (LNCaP-AI) cells was much greater than that in LNCaP cells. Moreover, the expression of PHB2 was not significantly different between the two cell lines, and the expression of LOC283070 in the nuclei of the LNCaP-AI cells was significantly greater than that in the LNCaP cells. In vitro data revealed that PHB2 overexpression significantly inhibited AR activity and cell proliferation and migration and induced accumulation of prostate cancer cells in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, the overexpression of LOC283070 fully abrogated the effects of PHB2 overexpression. In conclusion, we found that LOC283070 can bind to PHB2 located in the nucleus and inhibit its effect, and this is one of the mechanisms by which LOC283070 is involved in the transition of LNCaP cells into androgen-independent cells.
  2,081 297 7
Results of intrauterine inseminations with two pooled sequential ejaculates in cases of oligozoospermia
Jessika Moreau, Nicolas Gatimel, Jean Parinaud, Roger Leandri
September-October 2018, 20(5):523-524
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_22_18  PMID:29697066
  1,730 193 1