|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 769-772
Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination
Sandro La Vignera1, Rosita A Condorelli1, Enzo Vicari1, Vincenzo Favilla2, Giuseppe Morgia2, Aldo E Calogero1
1 Section of Andrology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Policlinico "G. Rodolico" University Hospital, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
2 Department of Urology, Policlinico "G. Rodolico" University Hospital, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
|Date of Web Publication||18-Sep-2015|
Sandro La Vignera
Section of Andrology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Policlinico "G. Rodolico" University Hospital, University of Catania, Catania
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
We have previously demonstrated a high frequency of premature ejaculation (PE) among patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound (US) features of patients with MAGI and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) associated (MAGI-APEpos). US evaluation of 50 MAGI-APEpos patients compared to 50 patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg) which represent the control group. The diagnosis of APE was made through the evaluation of Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool). The main outcome measure was represented by the frequency of US criteria suggestive of P (prostatitis), V (vesiculitis), and E (epididymitis) in MAGI-APEpos and MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos patients showed a total number of US criteria significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. MAGI-APEpos showed a higher frequency of US criteria of V and E (complicated forms of MAGI). Finally, in MAGI-APEpos group, it was found a positive relationship between the anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and the APD of the seminal vesicles, as well as between both diameters and the PEDT score. MAGI-APEpos patients have a peculiar US characterization compared to MAGI-PEneg patients. According to these results, US evaluation of the epididymal and of the prostato vesicular tract should be considered in the practical clinical approach of patients with MAGI and APE. In particular, it could be a support for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this clinical problem in these patients.
Keywords: male accessory gland infection; premature ejaculation; ultrasound examination
|How to cite this article:|
La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, Favilla V, Morgia G, Calogero AE. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination. Asian J Androl 2016;18:769-72
|How to cite this URL:|
La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, Favilla V, Morgia G, Calogero AE. Acquired premature ejaculation and male accessory gland infection: relevance of ultrasound examination. Asian J Androl [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Aug 2];18:769-72. Available from: https://www.ajandrology.com/text.asp?2016/18/5/769/155539 - DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.155539
| Introduction|| |
Recently, it has been proposed a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a reduction of latency time, inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences.  However, acquired premature ejaculation (APE) has peculiar characteristics (demographic differences: men with APE are usually older, presence of comorbidities and greater Intravaginal ejaculation latency time [IELT]) including the frequent association with the urogenital tract inflammations.  Previously, we reported that patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) have a high frequency of sexual dysfunction, detectable through the application of a dedicated questionnaire (SI-MAGI = structured interview about MAGI) and PE represents one of these dysfunctions.  Usually in the literature, it has been reported the association between APE and chronic P (prostatitis),  however, the P represents only one of the three diagnostic categories of MAGI: P (prostatitis), PV (prostato- vesiculitis), PVE (prostato-vesciculo-epididymitis).  A low number of evidences concerning the frequency of PE in patients with epididymitis  and chronic vesiculitis,  this aspect appears in contrast with some important physiological aspects, such as: the contractile function of the epididymis  and the role of the seminal vesicles in the production of the seminal plasma.  Chronic inflammation of the epididymis and seminal vesicles can also be evaluated through US (ultrasound) examination and in the past our group has published the US criteria for the diagnosis of MAGI.  On the basis of these premises, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of peculiar US features in patients with MAGI and APE associated (MAGI-APEpos) compared to patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg).
| Materials and Methods|| |
Of a consecutive series of 1000 patients which referred to Andrology Center of Catania University during the period between January 2012 and January 2014 for the clinical counseling of andrological disorders, we selected 50 MAGI-APEpos patients. The diagnosis of MAGI and the US evaluation was performed according to criteria previously published, ,, summarized in Box 1 [Additional file 1] . For all patients, the US examination was carried out few minutes before and 5 min after ejaculation. All patients examined had 4 days of sexual abstinence. All ultrasound examinations were performed by the same investigator. The study was approved by the Internal Institutional Board, and all examined patients signed an informed consent to the processing of personal data.
All selected patients reported the appearance of PE after a period of normal ejaculatory latency that was present from the first sexual experience. The duration of the APE has been assessed by the SI-MAGI.  This questionnaire is divided into four domains relative to urinary disorders, spontaneous and/or ejaculatory pain and/or discomfort, sexual disorders and quality-of-life. Question 5 of Section 3 (sexual disorders) is related to the presence and duration of PE.  The presence of APE was assessed through the evaluation of IELT  and confirmed with the questionnaire PEDT  (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool). According with these criteria, IELT <3 min 1 and PEDT score >11  identifies patients with APE.
Psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (evaluated through the administration of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5)  and structured interview on erectile dysfunction (SIEDY),  hypogonadism, hyperthyroidism. Fifty patients with MAGI without PE (MAGI-PEneg), evaluated in the same period represented the control group.
Results are reported as mean ± s.e.m. throughout the study. The data were analyzed by t-Student test. Correlation analysis was conducted by Pearson correlation test. The software SPSS 9.0 for Windows was used for statistical evaluation (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). A statistically significant difference was accepted when the P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
MAGI-APEpos had a mean age 25.0 ± 8.0 years and a mean duration of APE 18.0 ± 6.0 months. The control group had a similar mean age 24.0 ± 6.0 years. The total number of US criteria suggestive for MAGI was significantly higher in MAGI-APEpos patients compared to MAGI-PEneg ([Table 1]). MAGI-APEpos patients showed a significantly higher frequency of the following US criteria: increase of the APD (anteroposterior diameter) of the seminal vesicles detected BE (before ejaculation), internal polycyclic areas and lower reduction of APD of the seminal vesicles detected after ejaculation. Finally, increase of the APD of the cephalic and/or caudal tract of the epididymis, presence of multiple microcystis in the head and/or tail, and impaired reduction of the APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis detected after ejaculation ([Table 1]).
|Table 1: US features of MAGI-APEpos patients compared to MAGI-PEneg patients |
Click here to view
MAGI-APEpos patients showed a mean value of the APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis detected BE and APD of the seminal vesicles detected BE significantly higher compared to MAGI-PEneg patients ([Figure 1]). In MAGI-APEpos patients, the correlation analysis showed a positive linear relationship between PEDT score and the APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis detected BE ([Figure 2]) and APD of the seminal vesicles detected BE ([Figure 3]). Finally, in MAGI-APEpos patients, the correlation analysis showed a positive linear relationship between the APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis detected BE and the APD of the seminal vesicles detected BE ([Figure 4]).
|Figure 1: Anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis (EC) and seminal vesicles (SV) detected before ejaculation (BE) in MAGI-APEpos patients compared to MAGI-PEneg patients.|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Correlation between anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and PEDT score (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool) in MAGI-APEpos patients.|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Correlation between anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the seminal vesicles and PEDT score (Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool) in MAGI-APEpos patients.|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Correlation between anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the caudal tract of the epididymis and APD of the seminal vesicles in MAGI-APEpos patients.|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The original aspect of these results is represented by the peculiar US characterization of patients with MAGI and APE associated. In fact, these patients have a significantly higher number of US criteria suggestive for MAGI and in particular, a higher frequency of US findings suggestive for chronic epididymitis and vesiculitis compared to patients with MAGI without PE that represented the control group. Another original aspect is represented by the positive relationship between the APD of the caudal tract of the epididymis and of the seminal vesicles that might suggest a particular US phenotype associated with PE in these patients. We can speculate that these US features may reflect an accelerated ejaculation secondary to increased volume of ejaculate. Therefore, in summary, the importance of the study can be summarized in two points:
- The importance in the clinical practice of US evaluation for the patients with MAGI and APE associated
- The possible presence of a peculiar US phenotype associated with the appearance of APE among patients with MAGI.
Usually, in the literature is reported the association between P and PE, however, P represents only one of the three diagnostic categories of MAGI: P, PV, and PVE. The results of this study suggest the importance of the anatomic extension of the inflammation in the epididymis and seminal vesicles as a possible determinant of APE. We believe that the importance of the results is represented by the inclusion of an additional variable to be evaluated in the clinical management of patients with PE and urogenital tract inflammation in addition to other reported by previous studies in the literature. About this aspect, it seems useful to analyze the main findings regarding the clinical variables to be considered for the patients with P and PE associated. The presence of PE was detected in 15% of men that have been evaluated in an Andrology Center for the couple's infertility. The severity of PEDT score was positively associated with the severity of prostatitis symptoms and with semen concentration of interleukin-8.  The presence of varicocele correlates with the severity of the prostatitis symptoms that represents a factor associated with a higher frequency of PE. 
Another variable to consider is represented by the different response to antibiotic therapy that usually improves the severity of PE in patients with P, but the improvement is associated with the reduction of prostatitis symptoms.  However, it is also important to evaluate the predictive factors of response to therapy, including the number of leukocytes in the prostatic secretion, Zohdy suggests that the presence of 19 or > leukocytes pcm has a diagnostic sensitivity 85.6% and a diagnostic specificity 70.7%.  The study of Trinchieri and colleagues showed that the frequency of PE in patients with a leukocytes count between 10-30 (36%) and >30 (32%) is significantly higher than patients with leukocytes count <10 in the urine obtained after prostate massage.  The negativity of cultures in treated patients represents a protective factor for recurrence of PE. 
The persistence of MAGI in elderly might be associated with the appearance of LUTS that is associated with high prevalence of PE 16%.  The increase of the age in patients with LUTS does not represent a protective factor for PE, in fact, another study conducted on 1779 men with a mean age 56 years and a mean IPSS score (International prostate symptoms score) = 7.96 points, showed a prevalence of PE 41%.  In young patients with P, the frequency of PE seems to be increasing among the younger patients as demonstrated by the study of Qiu: 42.9%, 37.0%, and 35.7% in the 18-30, 30-40, and 40-57 years age groups, respectively. 
There are no data in the literature regarding the US features of the epididymis and seminal vesicles of patients with PE. Only the study of Trinchieri and colleagues reported that the painful ejaculation was associated with enlargement or asymmetry of the seminal vesicles.  The severity of PEDT score was positively associated with prostatic artery peak systolic velocity that represents a US criterion of P.  Finally, in a series of 358 men with P, the presence of prostatic calcifications was observed in 49% of patients, but the results of the study showed a significant association of this US finding with erectile dysfunction but not with PE. 
In summary, the data of the literature suggest to consider the following possible determinants of PE in patients with P: male infertility, severity of symptoms, seminal concentration of interleukin 8, varicocele, age, and the increase of peak systolic velocity of prostatic artery. The results of this study suggest a peculiar US phenotype in patients with MAGI and APE associated, in particular the relationship between increased APD of the epididymis and seminal vesicles with the PEDT score deserves further evaluation to understand the possible mechanisms of this relationship. In particular, the US evaluation of patients with MAGI and associated PE could be a support in the clinical practice for a possible pathophysiological interpretation of this problem in these patients or suitable for idiopathic cases of PE.
| Competing Interests|| |
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
| References|| |
Serefoglu EC, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Althof SE, Shindel A, et al.
An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med
2014; 11: 1423-41.
La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, D'Agata R, Calogero AE. High frequency of sexual dysfunction in patients with male accessory gland infections. Andrologia
2012; 44 Suppl 1: 438-46.
Tran CN, Shoskes DA. Sexual dysfunction in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. World J Urol
2013; 31: 741-6.
La Vignera S, Vicari E, Condorelli RA, D'Agata R, Calogero AE. Male accessory gland infection and sperm parameters (review). Int J Androl
2011; 34: e330-47.
Yao B, Li XY, Zhao ZM, Cai YL, Shao Y, et al.
Semen biochemical markers and their significance in the patients with premature ejaculation. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
2007; 13: 1084-6.
Vignozzi L, Filippi S, Morelli A, Luconi M, Jannini E, et al.
Regulation of epididymal contractility during semen emission, the first part of the ejaculatory process: a role for estrogen. J Sex Med
2008; 5: 2010-6.
Ückert S, Waldkirch ES, Sonnenberg JE, Sandner P, Kuczyk MA, et al
. Expression and distribution of phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in the human seminal vesicles. J Sex Med
2011; 8: 3058-65.
La Vignera S, Calogero AE, Condorelli RA, Vicari LO, Catanuso M, et al.
Ultrasonographic evaluation of patients with male accessory gland infection. Andrologia
2012; 44 Suppl 1: 26-31.
Comhaire F, Verschraegen G, Vermeulen L. Diagnosis of accessory gland infection and its possible role in male infertility. Int J Androl
1980; 3: 32-45.
Rowe P, Comhaire F, Hargreave TB, Mellows HJ, editors. World Health Organization Manual for the Standardised Investigation and Diagnosis of the Infertile Couple. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1993.
Waldinger MD, Quinn P, Dilleen M, Mundayat R, Schweitzer DH, et al
. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time. J Sex Med
2005; 2: 492-7.
Symonds T, Perelman MA, Althof S, Giuliano F, Martin M, et al.
Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool. Eur Urol
2007; 52: 565-73.
Rosen RC, Cappelleri JC, Smith MD, Lipsky J, Peña BM. Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res
1999; 11: 319-26.
Petrone L, Mannucci E, Corona G, Bartolini M, Forti G, et al.
Structured interview on erectile dysfunction (SIEDY): a new, multidimensional instrument for quantification of pathogenetic issues on erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res
2003; 15: 210-20.
Lotti F, Corona G, Rastrelli G, Forti G, Jannini EA, et al
. Clinical correlates of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation in men with couple infertility. J Sex Med
2012; 9: 2698-707.
Lotti F, Corona G, Mancini M, Biagini C, Colpi GM, et al.
The association between varicocele, premature ejaculation and prostatitis symptoms: possible mechanisms. J Sex Med
2009; 6: 2878-87.
Magri V, Montanari E, äkerk V, Markotic A, Marras E, et al.
Fluoroquinolone-macrolide combination therapy for chronic bacterial prostatitis: retrospective analysis of pathogen eradication rates, inflammatory findings and sexual dysfunction. Asian J Androl
2011; 13: 819-27.
Zohdy W. Clinical parameters that predict successful outcome in men with premature ejaculation and inflammatory prostatitis. J Sex Med
2009; 6: 3139-46.
Trinchieri A, Magri V, Cariani L, Bonamore R, Restelli A, et al.
Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Arch Ital Urol Androl
2007; 79: 67-70.
El-Nashaar A, Shamloul R. Antibiotic treatment can delay ejaculation in patients with premature ejaculation and chronic bacterial prostatitis. J Sex Med
2007; 4: 491-6.
Wein AJ, Coyne KS, Tubaro A, Sexton CC, Kopp ZS, et al
. The impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on male sexual health: epiLUTS. BJU Int
2009; 103 Suppl 3: 33-41.
Jaspersen-Gastelum J, Rodríguez JA, Espinosa de los Monteros FJ, Beas-Sandoval L, Guzmán-Esquivel J, et al.
Prostatic profile, premature ejaculation, erectile function and andropause in an at-risk Mexican population. Int Urol Nephrol
2009; 41: 303-12.
Qiu YC, Xie CY, Zeng XD, Zhang JH. Investigation of sexual function in 623 patients with chronic prostatitis. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
2007; 13: 524-6.
Zhao Z, Xuan X, Zhang J, He J, Zeng G. A prospective study on association of prostatic calcifications with sexual dysfunction in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). J Sex Med
2014; 11: 2528-36.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
|This article has been cited by|
||Ultrasound evaluation of patients with male accessory gland inflammation: a pictorial review
| ||Sandro La Vignera,Andrea Crafa,Rosita A. Condorelli,Federica Barbagallo,Laura M. Mongiož,Rossella Cannarella,Michele Compagnone,Antonio Aversa,Aldo E. Calogero |
| ||Andrology. 2021; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Management of premature ejaculation: a clinical guideline from the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine (SIAMS)
| ||A. Sansone,A. Aversa,G. Corona,A. D. Fisher,A. M. Isidori,S. La Vignera,E. Limoncin,M. Maggi,M. Merico,E. A. Jannini |
| ||Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2020; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||High rate of detection of ultrasound signs of prostatitis in patients with HPV-DNA persistence on semen: role of ultrasound in HPV-related male accessory gland infection
| ||S. La Vignera,R. A. Condorelli,R. Cannarella,F. Giacone,L. Mongioií,G. Scalia,V. Favilla,G. I. Russo,S. Cimino,G. Morgia,A. E. Calogero |
| ||Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2019; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||The Risky Health Behaviours of Male Adolescents in the Southern Italian Region: Implications for Sexual and Reproductive Disease
| ||Anna Perri,Danilo Lofaro,Giulia Izzo,Benedetta Aquino,Massimo Bitonti,Giuseppe Ciambrone,Sandro La Vignera,Carlotta Pozza,Daniele Gianfrilli,Antonio Aversa |
| ||Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(9): 1414 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Effect of Ningmitai capsule plus sertraline on patients with premature ejaculation and enlarged seminal vesicles: A randomized clinical trial
| ||Peng Longping,Hong Zhiwei,Shen Jiaming,Hu Xuechun,Shao Yong,Jing Jun,Lu Jinchun,Yao Bing |
| ||Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2018; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Chronic Administration of Tadalafil Improves the Symptoms of Patients with Amicrobic MAGI: An Open Study
| ||Sandro La Vignera,Rosita A. Condorelli,Laura M. Mongioi,Aldo E. Calogero |
| ||International Journal of Endocrinology. 2017; 2017: 1 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Male accessory gland inflammation, infertility, and sexual dysfunctions: a practical approach to diagnosis and therapy
| ||A. E. Calogero,Y. Duca,R. A. Condorelli,S. La Vignera |
| ||Andrology. 2017; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Relation of size of seminal vesicles on ultrasound to premature ejaculation
| ||Zhi-Wei Hong,Yu-Ming Feng,Yi-Feng Ge,Jun Jing,Xue-Chun Hu,Jia-Ming Shen,Long-Ping Peng,Bing Yao,Zhong-Cheng Xin |
| ||Asian Journal of Andrology. 2017; 19(5): 554 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|