Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 954-960

The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China

Date of Submission21-Oct-2014
Date of Decision13-Dec-2014
Date of Acceptance27-Jan-2015
Date of Web Publication07-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Zhong-Dong Qiao
School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.150847

Rights and Permissions

The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient.

Keywords: DNA fragmentation; heavy metals; nicotine; oxidative stress; semen quality; spermatogenesis

How to cite this article:
Dai JB, Wang ZX, Qiao ZD. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility. Asian J Androl 2015;17:954-60

How to cite this URL:
Dai JB, Wang ZX, Qiao ZD. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility. Asian J Androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Dec 4];17:954-60. Available from:

  Introduction Top

Tobacco consumption is directly responsible for nearly 6 million deaths annually, and a further 600 000 people die each year from exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). [1] Tobacco is killing 1 in 10 adults worldwide and its quantity of consumption is increasing globally especially in developing countries according to WHO statistical data. [2] Many studies published during the past years indicated that tobacco smoking is one of the greatest risk factors of more than 60% noncommunicable diseases. [3] Among all the negatives associated with tobacco consumption are decreased in both male and female fertility. In this review, we sought to assess the association between tobacco smoking and male fertility. The studies of the association between tobacco smoking and male fertility included in this review were identified by searching the database PubMed and Google Scholar for manuscripts published between 1980 and 2014 and by reviewing articles cited by other investigators. Keywords used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: tobacco smoking, male fertility, semen, sperm, and spermatogenesis.

  Hazardous Substance in Tobacco Smoke Top

Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, radioactive substances, heavy metals, etc. Here, we strive to elaborate three of these substances which are closely related to male fertility according to the researches in recent years.


As a main hazardous substance and lethal toxin in tobacco, nicotine was detected in both the serum and semen of smokers, and the level of this substance showed a positive correlation with the dose of smoking exposure. [4] Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine and is also an alkaloid found in tobacco. In vitro studies have indicated that the seminal cotinine and trans-3'- hydroxycotinine levels were negatively correlated to total sperm motility. [5] The toxicological effects of nicotine were proven to be dose-dependent. In vitro study found that neither nicotine nor cotinine in low concentration (≤1 mmol l−1 ) were conclusively harmful to sperm motility, but a higher nicotine concentration (≥1 mmol l−1 ) decreased the sperm motion and viability parameters significantly. [6] Condorelli et al. [7] reported that nicotine suppressed sperm progressive motility in a concentration-dependent manner starting from the relative low concentration (1 ng ml−1 ) in vitro. At higher concentration (100 ng ml−1 ), nicotine reduced the percentage of viable spermatozoa and promoted spermatozoa apoptosis with DNA fragmentation or altered the chromatin compactness. This study indicated that nicotine may be considered as a toxic component of tobacco smoke that directly impairs male reproductive functions. Other studies revealed that nicotine could induce mouse Leydig cell apoptosis and inhibit androgen biosynthesis in rat Leydig cell, [8] suggesting the possibility that nicotine may impaired male reproductive hormone system.

The in vivo reproductive effects of nicotine have been assessed in many animal studies. In male reproductive system, nicotine (0.5 mg kg−1 ) could decrease sperm motility and count while increase the percentage of sperm abnormality in rats. [9],[10] Oyeyipo et al. [11] focused on the alteration of the male reproductive hormones caused by nicotine exposure. Results showed that nicotine intake significantly decreased testosterone level in rats. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level decreased only in the high-dose group; however, the mean luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) level increased compared with those found in the control group. A more comprehensive research assessed testicular gametogenesis, steroidogenesis, and expression of steroidogenic regulatory protein in nicotine treated rats. Activities of the testicular key androgenic enzymes, testosterone concentrations in intratesticular and plasma, and plasma concentration of gonadotropin were significantly reduced. These reductions were accompanied by the alterations of testicular antioxidant status and dysfunction of spermatogenesis as indicated by a significant reduction in the number of different generations of germ cells at specific stages in spermatogenesis cycle. [12] Nicotine also caused degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, revealed by altered general tubular architecture, decreased thickness of the spermatogenic cell masses, Sertoli cell vacuolation, and thickened basal lamina. [13] These results indicated comprehensive effects of nicotine on male reproduction which involved oxidative stress in the gonads [14] and dysfunction of reproductive hormone system. In addition, Sofikitis et al. [5] observed that spermatozoa exposed to cotinine demonstrated significantly lower outcomes in sperm motility assays, hypoosmotic swelling test, and zona-free hamster oocyte sperm penetration assay. These findings indicated a detrimental effect of nicotine on the function of sperm membrane and the ability of spermatozoa to undergo capacitation.

Heavy metals (cadmium and lead)

Cadmium (Cd) in soil enriched in tobacco and smoking is the primary source of Cd intake in the ordinary population. [15] Cd exhibits an extremely long biological half-life in the human body (20-40 years) which makes it an accumulative toxin. [16] Elevated blood Cd and seminal Cd in smokers were observed, and smoking habits (cigarettes per day) were significantly correlated with Cd level. [17] Animal study clearly illustrated the reproductive toxicity caused by Cd exposure including reduction of sperm cell numbers and sperm motility with increases in DNA fragmentation and sperm abnormity. [18] This result is basically consistent with those of epidemiological studies before. [17]

Higher levels of lead (Pb) were also observed in serum and semen of both fertile and infertile smokers. [19],[20] In the animal study, Pb exposure decreased alkaline phosphatase and Na + -K + -ATPase activity with a dose effect indicating that Pb could impair sperm motility. [21] The relationship between Pb exposure and male fertility in general population remains vague, but some indications have been described. [22] Moderate exposure to Cd and Pb was not proved to impair male reproductive endocrine function but attenuated human semen quality significantly. [22] This finding indicated that heavy metals from tobacco may impair male fertility though more direct ways which will be discussed later.


Benzo(a)pyrene is found in smoke resulting from tobacco combustion, it mainly presents in tobacco tar and acts as a mutagen and carcinogen. [23] The major diol epoxide (DE-I) binds covalently to DNA strand and forms adducts called benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA. These adducts are permutation lesions in Guanosine nucleotides which could be potential sources of carcinogenic damage. It is reported that BPDE-DNA adducts in spermatozoa were elevated by tobacco consumption. [24] An in vitro study showed that benzo(a)pyrene (≥25 μg ml−1 ) significantly reduced the percentage of acrosome halo formation. [25] These findings indicated that benzo(a)pyrene could be considered as a major etiology of DNA damage in smokers.

  Smoking and Testis Functions Top

The primary functions of the testis are spermatogenesis and production of androgenic hormones. The androgenic hormones secreted by testis play important roles in maintaining the spermatogenic niche and the spermatogenesis process. [26] Thus, we will discuss the effects of smoking on reproductive hormones and the spermatogenesis process here.

Reproductive hormones

Tobacco smoking may cause sub-fertility by influencing the level of reproductive hormones, [27] but the specific effects remain uncertain. With regard to androgens secreted from Leydig cell in the testis, some studies have indicated increased levels of total testosterone and androstenedione in smokers. [28] Meanwhile, other studies put forward different views that the mean levels of testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone did not differ in smokers. [29] Another research team evaluated the hormonal levels of fertile men, which were divided into heavy, moderate and mild smokers and found nonsignificant difference in the testosterone level. [29] Moreover, estrone, [30] 17 beta-estradiol and Sertoli cell secreted inhibin [28] were also up-regulated in smokers according to some researches. Because of the relative small sample size and the widespread confounding factors in these observational studies, animal studies may provide some more convincing results. These studies implied that chronic cigarette smoking increases hepatic metabolism of testosterone and may lead to a reduced testosterone level in serum. In conclusion, secretory dysfunction of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testis may be the cause of the impaired sperm quality observed in smokers.

Follicle-stimulating hormone and LH are synthesized in the pituitary gland and act as important regulating hormones in Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Ochedalski et al. [31] reported that the 17 beta-estradiol (E) level was elevated and the levels of FSH, LH, and PRL were lower in smokers. Blanco-Muρoz et al. [28] observed the male reproductive hormone profile in a group of 136 flower growers and concluded that current smokers who consumed 5 or more cigarettes per day showed significantly higher levels of LH compared with nonsmokers.


An impaired reproductive hormone system bound to affect spermatogenesis process. The testis is considered to be physiologically vulnerable to hypoxia because of its high metabolic requirements owing to continuous spermatogenesis process and its relative insufficient vascular supply in the spermatic cord. [32] Therefore, tobacco smoking compromised oxygen delivery [33] and was suspected to have a detrimental effect on testicle functions. Animal study detected several ultrastructural effects of smoking on the testis. The basal lamina of the seminiferous tubule was significantly irregular and thickened in rat testis after daily tobacco smoke exposure. [34] We assume that histological detriment in testis bound to affect spermatogenesis. And more intuitively, chronic cigarette smoke was also found to induce apoptosis in mouse testis, [35] and the number of germ cell, Leydig cell and Sertoli cell reflected concurrent reductions. [36] Xu et al. [37] investigated 31 differentially expressed proteins extracted from the testes of mice exposed daily to cigarette smoke using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Most proteins are involved in cell signal pathway networks, including Pkc (s), ERK1/2, Akt, and nuclear factor-κB, which were known to be crucial in spermatogenesis process. They also found four CpGs near Pebp1 transcriptional start site were hypermethylated in the testis of the smoking group. This result suggests a research direction involving modified DNA methylation patterns due to tobacco smoking.

  Smoking and Epididymis Functions Top

During the transit in the epididymis, sperm undergoes maturation processes necessary to acquire normal functions. Detached ciliary tufts (DCTs) in semen originated from the epididymal epithelium and were considered as a biochemical evidence of epididymal dysfunction. [38] It is reported that the DCTs observed in the semen were associated with a high incidence of tobacco smoking. [38] This finding may suggest the epididymal involvement as a result of the reproductive pathology caused by tobacco smoking. Smoking exposure was also found to attenuate the activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase while increase the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in rat epididymis. [34] The changes of these two enzymes reflected the inhibitory effect of smoking on sperm maturation. Zhu et al. [39] utilized 2-D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis to screen the different expressed proteins in mice epididymis treated with tobacco smoking and identified 27 proteins which show significant alterations in protein profile. These proteins participated in energy metabolism, protein process, and oxidative stress process. This result implied the mechanism of impairments in epididymis due to tobacco smoking.

Effect of tobacco smoking on semen quality

The relationship between tobacco smoking and semen quality remains controversial even after 30 years research. [Table 1] shows some representative epidemiological researches involved in the relationship between tobacco smoking and semen quality. Most studies reported reductions in the conventional semen parameters including semen volume, sperm density, motility, viability, and normal morphology in smoking population. Specifically, all of the previous studies indicated that smoking had a negative effect on sperm quality in fertile population. However, the conclusions in the infertile and hypo-fertile population appeared confusing. Some studies [40],[41],[42] argued a conclusion as which are found in the fertile population, meanwhile Mak et al. [43] found no difference between the semen quality of infertile smokers and infertile none-smokers. A similar finding was also reported in hypofertile population. [44] Notably, the researches with negative conclusions all observed nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) reduced semen quality. These results may be due to the already lower semen quality in infertile and subfertile population. Because of the direct relationship between semen quality and male fertility, the above-mentioned epidemiological studies provided a clear indication about the reduced male fertility caused by tobacco consumption.
Table 1: Relevant studies concerning smoking effect on semen quality

Click here to view

  Smoking and Spermatozoa Functions Top

Among all the conventional parameters, sperm motility is the most relevant indicator of fertilization. Sperm creatine kinase (CK) is an energy reservoir for the rapid buffering and regeneration of adenosine triphosphate and plays an important role in sperm motility. The reduced CK activity in sperm caused by smoking may potentially impair sperm energy homeostasis and is associated with lower sperm motility. [61] As a key protein participates in fertilization, acrosin is released from the acrosome of spermatozoa as a consequence of the acrosome reaction. Smokers exhibited lower acrosin activity, [62] and this is correlated with sperm density and motility. Moreover, the inducibility of the acrosome reaction was significantly lower in semen samples from smokers. [63] Zalata et al. [63] reported that acrosin activity was diminished by oxidative stress, indicating the possible mechanism underlying the effect of smoking on acrosin activity. An in vitro study revealed the inhibitory effects of tobacco smoking on capacitation-associated protein phosphorylation in human spermatozoa. [64] These changes in posttranslational modifications may be one of the mechanisms through which exposure to tobacco can negatively affect sperm functions and cause fertility problems. In addition to the decreased semen quality, acrosin activity and protein phosphorylation, tobacco smoking has been proved to have impairments to other functions of spermatozoa such as expression of miRNAs and histone-to-protamine transition. [65],[66],[67]

Ultra-structural abnormalities in spermatozoa

Structure determines function. Diversifications in the arrangement and quantity of axonemal microtubules and axonemal abnormalities have long been observed in heavy smokers. [68] Electron microscopy revealed coiling of tail filaments within the plasma membrane and the percentage of coiled spermatozoa was significantly correlated with heavy smoking. [69] The fertility index measured by sperm morphology which was assessed by transmission electron microscopy was significantly reduced in heavy smokers. [70] It seems that light or moderate smoking (≤20 cigarettes  per day) is insufficient to induce ultra-structural sperm abnormalities according to the current researches. [69]

Smoking and assisted reproduction outcomes

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is reproductive technology used primarily for infertility (IF) treatments. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT). The effect of smoking on ART results in male was not reported or recorded in the vast majority of studies. Male smoking was considered as a deleterious factor in pregnancy outcome among IVF patients. [71] Zitzmann et al. [72] associated male smoking with lower success rate in 153 ICSI and 148 IVF couples. Significantly decreased live birth rates were also reported among 166 couples seeking pregnancy through ART. [73] Based on only one study, men who smoked for more than 5 years presented a higher risk of multiple births during IVF or GIFT. [74] The number of oocytes retrieved from patients decreased by 46% in case the respective partners used to smoke; such an effect was most probably due to the passive smoke inhaled by the woman. [74] We speculate that the negative ART outcomes due to male smoking are likely to be a combined result of both the direct effect upon spermatozoa function and the indirect effect of passive smoking of the female partners.

  Smoking and Varicocele Top

Varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum and causes a progressive decline in male fertility. [75] In population with varicocele, smokers had an incidence of oligozoospermia 10-fold greater than that of nonsmokers and was associated with altered semen quality, decreased sperm functional integrity, seminal oxidative stress, [76] increased sperm DNA fragmentation, lower zinc (Zn) level, [77] and increased sperm immaturity, necrosis and apoptosis percentages. [78] Varicocele is present in almost 40% of infertile males and was considered as a major cause of male IF [79] but the precise mechanisms remain uncertain. Hypotheses implicating testicular hypoxia due to venous stasis, reflux of renal/adrenal toxic metabolites, hypertension in the internal spermatic veins, hormonal dysfunction and temperature increase in testicle outline the etiology of varicocele. [80] Recent understanding of the role of oxidative stress in male reproduction led some postulation that oxidative stress was the possible cause of sperm dysfunction in patients with varicocele. [81]

  Tobacco Smoking as a Risk Factor of Erectile Dysfunction Top

Many independent cohort studies implied a relationship between tobacco smoking and impotence. For instance, a higher percentage of current tobacco smokers were reported impotence than did nonsmokers [82] according to a research focused on middle-aged men. Other researchers indicated that smoking is an independent risk factor of vasculogenic impotence [83] and arteriogenic impotence. [84] A recent systematic review of observational studies including four prospective cohort studies and four case-control studies suggested that current smoking increased the risk of erectile dysfunction significantly. [85] In summary, after 30 years research, tobacco smoking is scientifically recognized as a risk factor of erectile impotence. [86]

  Environmental and Prenatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Top

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the inhalation of smoke, called SHS or passive smoking. Concerns around ETS have played a central role in the debate over the harms and regulation of tobacco products because of its harm to by-standers especially woman and children. [87] Most of the studies involved the effects of ETS on fertility focused on females because of their susceptibility to ETS and the direct impairment to impregnation and embryonic development. [88]

Intrauterine exposure to environmental toxic substances in pregnancy has the potential to cause adverse effects on the prenatal development of the embryo. Effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke on semen quality in adult life have been investigated in only a few studies, and the results remain controversial. Ramlau-Hansen et al. [89] reported 38% lower total sperm count, 19% lower semen volume, and 17% lower sperm concentration in men exposed in utero to more than 19 cigarettes daily. Jensen et al. [90] observed a dose-dependent association between prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and lower sperm concentration with higher risk of oligozoospermia. Another cross-sectional study indicated that prenatal smoking lead to smaller testicles, lower total sperm counts and reduced spermatogenesis-related hormones. [91] The similar findings were also reported in animal studies. [92],[93]

  Biochemical Abnormalities Underlying the Phenomenon Top

Seminal reactive oxygen species and antioxidents

Oxidative stress caused by smoking was long noticed by researchers. Kiziler et al. [94] reported that the malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls level were higher in smokers while the level of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione were higher in none-smokers. These indicators are all related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS in seminal plasma generated from various sources that could either be endogenous or exogenous. The endogenous ROS mainly generated from leukocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) and immature spermatozoa while the exogenous sources include smoking, industrial compounds, alcohol etc. [95] Both seminal plasma and spermatozoa possess antioxidant systems capable of counteracting the harmful effects of ROS. The imbalance between total antioxidant capacity and ROS production in seminal fluid indicates oxidative stress and is strongly correlated with male IF. [96] Unsurprisingly, both fertile and infertile smokers show a higher seminal ROS level. [56]

Sperm was considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidative damages due to the abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. [97] As an exogenous antioxidant in semen, ascorbic acid played a most important role in controlling the oxidative stress. [98] Serum ascorbic acid was found decreased significantly in heavy smoking group [99] and their sperm quality improved after ascorbic acid supplement. Furthermore, endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were also lower in smokers. [56],[100] Seminal plasma Zn also plays an important role as antioxidant and antibacterial agent that protect the semen from heavy metals accumulation. [21] Compared with fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers were significantly associated with lower seminal Zn levels. [56] Kiziler et al. [94] utilized statistical methods to verify the correlation between semen oxidative stress and Cd/Pb exposure. In subfertile population, positive correlations were found between seminal Cd and seminal protein carbonyls. The seminal Pb and spermatozoa ROS levels were also positively correlated. While in fertile smokers, blood Cd and ROS level were positively correlated. Cd in tobacco smoke decreases antioxidant capacity by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes and displacing Zn in metalloenzymes thus decreasing their activity. In summary, tobacco smoking increases ROS production while decreases antioxidant capacity and these effects are mainly due to the Cd exposure in smokers.

A study investigated the genetic variants of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) gene in 314 heavy smokers and its relationship with semen quality. [101] The NRF2 rs6721961 TT genotype was found more frequently in heavy smokers with low semen quality than in those with higher semen quality. NRF2 is an antioxidative transcription activator that binds to antioxidant response elements in the promoter regions of target genes. [102] These results indicated that exogenous or endogenous antioxidants may play an important role in rescuing the semen quality in smokers and oxidative stress can be considered as the core factor of the impaired male fertility owing to tobacco smoking.

DNA fragmentation

Spermatozoa chromatin is relatively tighter packaged due to the positively charged protamine instead of histone in somatic cells. [67] This extremely compact and stable structure diminishes the ability of DNA damage repairing. As a consequence, DNA fragments which correlated closely to sperm quality and viability [103] were detected in mature spermatozoa. Sepaniak et al. [60] showed that smokers' spermatozoa had a significantly higher level of DNA fragmentation than that of nonsmokers. Furthermore, a detrimental effect caused by smoking was detected by analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation after capacitation. [104] The level of bulky DNA adducts, which result from DNA damage, was also reported higher in healthy smokers. [105] DNA fragmentation can directly damage sperm function and may affect embryotic development of offspring. The sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was also negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. [106] This result may explain the decreased sperm motility caused by tobacco smoking. The most common origin of sperm DNA fragments is oxidative damage. Spermatozoa are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress because high ROS level can cause a breakdown of sperm phospholipids and fatty acids. [43] The relationship between tobacco smoking and the semen ROS level was discussed above, and the higher ROS level induced by tobacco smoking may result in DNA damage.

Many studies have shown that cell apoptosis was also involved in sperm DNA fragments formation. [103] A significant increase of apoptotic spermatozoa proportion in the ejaculates of smokers was observed. [107] Tawadrous et al. [108] tested some apoptosis markers in sperm from an infertile man and reported that sperm Smac/DIABLO, caspase-9 activities were correlated positively with the mean number of daily smoked cigarettes and smoking duration.

  Discussion and Conclusions Top

Due to the fact that cigarette smoke contains more than 4000 harmful substances, there has long been concern that smoking could have adverse effects on male reproduction. First and foremost, tobacco smoking leads to reduced semen quality including semen volume, sperm density, motility, viability, and normal morphology in smokers. Furthermore, reproductive hormone system disorders, dysfunction of spermatogenesis, sperm maturation process, and impaired spermatozoa function have also been observed in smokers. Despite the various harmful effects of smoking on male fertility, most male smokers are still fertile but have a higher risk of sub-fertility or IF. Studies of natural conception in couples with a smoking male partner fail to demonstrate a significant reduction in fecundity. [109] While other studies indicated that smoking is associated with lower fecundity rates, a higher risk of IVF failures and adverse reproductive outcomes. [110] The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum, so we assume that male smokers who can generate normal spermatozoa may have the ability of producing offspring. The knowledge currently available indicates that the balance of ROS and antioxidants in semen plasma, sperm and testis plays an important role in maintaining the normal function of spermatozoa because of their high susceptibility to oxidative stress. Since sperm lipid and DNA are vulnerable to ROS, increased ROS level will lead to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis which will result in the impairment of sperm function leading to lower male fertility ([Figure 1]). Nicotine and its metabolite cotinine act more complicated in male reproduction system. The biological functions impaired by nicotine include testicular gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. Benzo(a)pyrene, a mutagen and carcinogen in tar, can bind covalently to DNA strand and forms adduct which may affect spermatozoa function and embryonic development of offspring. From another prospect, tobacco smoking aggravates the pathology lesions of varicocele which was considered as a major cause of male IF.
Figure 1: Schematic representation of the effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility. The figure identifies the main hazardous components of tobacco. Tobacco smoking leads to reduced semen quality including semen volume, sperm density, motility, viability, and normal morphology. Furthermore, reproductive hormone system disorders, dysfunction of spermatogenesis, sperm maturation process, and impaired spermatozoa function have also been observed in smokers. The left part of the figure indicates the underlying mechanism. Increased reactive oxygen species level caused by hazardous components of tobacco will lead to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis which will result in the impairment of sperm function leading to lower male fertility.

Click here to view

The assisted reproduction outcomes are also affected by tobacco smoking according to extensive clinical data. But the definitive conclusions remain controversial because of the relatively low susceptibility to smoking observed in the infertile population and the passive exposure of female partners to tobacco smoke. Parental tobacco exposure in utero was also reported to affect male fertility, and this result may be caused by direct exposure of male offspring during the embryonic developmental processes. The maternal effect of tobacco smoking prompts us the paternal effect which may involve epigenetical regulations such as microRNAs and alterations of DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns. The reviewed articles outlined comprehensively the hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility. There is insufficient insight into the underlying mechanisms of the observed toxicological effects because most of the current researches are descriptive. Further studies concerning the molecular mechanisms especially the epigenetic modifications involved in the pathogenic process of smoking are required. Because of the inheritability of epigenetic modifications, the trans-generational effects of tobacco smoking through paternal line are also worth expecting.

  Author Contributions Top

JBD carried out the literature studying and manuscript writing. ZXW carried out the conception and revision of the manuscript. ZDQ is responsible for the conception, revision, and approval.

  Competing Interests Top

The authors declare no competing interests.

  Acknowledgments Top

This work was supported by Medical Engineering in a joint project with Shanghai Jiao Tong University (YG2010 MS27) and the National Key Basic Research Program (2009CB941704).

  References Top

Low WY, Binns C. Tobacco consumption: the Asia-Pacific region's major public health problem. Asia Pac J Public Health 2013; 25: 7S-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980-2012. JAMA 2014; 311: 183-92.  Back to cited text no. 2
Schraufnagel DE, Latif E. Non-communicable diseases, tobacco, and The Union. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2014; 18: 1139-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
Haque O, Vitale JA, Agarwal A, du Plessis SS. The effect of smoking on male infertility. In: Male Infertility. New York: Springer; 2014. p. 19-30.  Back to cited text no. 4
Sofikitis N, Takenaka M, Kanakas N, Papadopoulos H, Yamamoto Y, et al. Effects of cotinine on sperm motility, membrane function, and fertilizing capacity in vitro. Urol Res 2000; 28: 370-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
Oyeyipo IP, Maartens PJ, du Plessis SS. In vitro effects of nicotine on human spermatozoa. Andrologia 2014; 46: 887-92.  Back to cited text no. 6
Condorelli RA, La Vignera S, Giacone F, Iacoviello L, Vicari E, et al. In vitro effects of nicotine on sperm motility and bio-functional flow cytometry sperm parameters. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2013; 26: 739-46.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kim KH, Joo KJ, Park HJ, Kwon CH, Jang MH, et al. Nicotine induces apoptosis in TM3 mouse Leydig cells. Fertil Steril 2005; 83 Suppl 1: 1093-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
Oyeyipo IP, Raji Y, Emikpe BO, Bolarinwa AF. Effects of nicotine on sperm characteristics and fertility profile in adult male rats: a possible role of cessation. J Reprod Infertil 2011; 12: 201-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
Ezzatabadipour M, Azizollahi S, Sarvazad A, Mirkahnooj Z, Mahdinia Z, et al. Effects of concurrent chronic administration of alcohol and nicotine on rat sperm parameters. Andrologia 2012; 44: 330-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
Oyeyipo IP, Raji Y, Bolarinwa AF. Nicotine alters male reproductive hormones in male albino rats: the role of cessation. J Hum Reprod Sci 2013; 6: 40-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
Jana K, Samanta PK, De DK. Nicotine diminishes testicular gametogenesis, steroidogenesis, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in adult albino rats: possible influence on pituitary gonadotropins and alteration of testicular antioxidant status. Toxicol Sci 2010; 116: 647-59.  Back to cited text no. 12
Nesseim WH, Haroun HS, Mostafa E, Youakim MF, Mostafa T. Effect of nicotine on spermatogenesis in adult albino rats. Andrologia 2011; 43: 398-404.  Back to cited text no. 13
Oyeyipo IP, Raji Y, Bolarinwa AF. Antioxidant profile changes in reproductive tissues of rats treated with nicotine. J Hum Reprod Sci 2014; 7: 41-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
Lugon-Moulin N, Martin F, Krauss MR, Ramey PB, Rossi L. Cadmium concentration in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) from different countries and its relationship with other elements. Chemosphere 2006; 63: 1074-86.  Back to cited text no. 15
Klaassen CD, Liu J, Diwan BA. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009; 238: 215-20.  Back to cited text no. 16
Mendiola J, Moreno JM, Roca M, Vergara-Juárez N, Martínez-García MJ, et al. Relationships between heavy metal concentrations in three different body fluids and male reproductive parameters: a pilot study. Environ Health 2011; 10: 6.  Back to cited text no. 17
Oliveira H, Spanò M, Santos C, Pereira Mde L. Adverse effects of cadmium exposure on mouse sperm. Reprod Toxicol 2009; 28: 550-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
Hosni H, Selim O, Abbas M, Fathy A. Semen quality and reproductive endocrinal function related to blood lead levels in infertile painters. Andrologia 2013; 45: 120-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK. Correlation between lead and cadmium concentration and semen quality. Andrologia 2014 Sep 16. doi: 10.1111/and.12342. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 20
Batra N, Nehru B, Bansal MP. Influence of lead and zinc on rat male reproduction at 'biochemical and histopathological levels'. J Appl Toxicol 2001; 21: 507-12.  Back to cited text no. 21
Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, et al. Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014; 21: 11066-74.  Back to cited text no. 22
Luijten M, Hernandez L, Zwart E, Bos P, van Steeg H, et al. The sensitivity of young animals to benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxic stress. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014; 20: 102-6.  Back to cited text no. 23
Perrin J, Tassistro V, Mandon M, Grillo JM, Botta A, et al. Tobacco consumption and benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA adducts in spermatozoa: in smokers, swim-up procedure selects spermatozoa with decreased DNA damage. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 2013-7.  Back to cited text no. 24
Mukhopadhyay D, Nandi P, Varghese AC, Gutgutia R, Banerjee S, et al. The in vitro effect of benzo[a]pyrene on human sperm hyperactivation and acrosome reaction. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 595-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
Cederroth CR, Auger J, Zimmermann C, Eustache F, Nef S. Soy, phyto-oestrogens and male reproductive function: a review. Int J Androl 2010; 33: 304-16.  Back to cited text no. 26
Jeng HA, Chen YL, Kantaria KN. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49: 262-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
Blanco-Muñoz J, Lacasaña M, Aguilar-Garduño C. Effect of current tobacco consumption on the male reproductive hormone profile. Sci Total Environ 2012; 426: 100-5.  Back to cited text no. 28
Pasqualotto FF, Sobreiro BP, Hallak J, Pasqualotto EB, Lucon AM. Cigarette smoking is related to a decrease in semen volume in a population of fertile men. BJU Int 2006; 97: 324-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
Soldin OP, Makambi KH, Soldin SJ, O'Mara DM. Steroid hormone levels associated with passive and active smoking. Steroids 2011; 76: 653-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
Ochedalski T, Lachowicz-Ochedalska A, Dec W, Czechowski B. Examining the effects of tobacco smoking on levels of certain hormones in serum of young men. Ginekol Pol 1994; 65: 87-93.  Back to cited text no. 31
Reyes JG, Farias JG, Henríquez-Olavarrieta S, Madrid E, Parraga M, et al. The hypoxic testicle: physiology and pathophysiology. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012; 2012: 929285.  Back to cited text no. 32
Hoff CM, Grau C, Overgaard J. Effect of smoking on oxygen delivery and outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma - A prospective study. Radiother Oncol 2012; 103: 38-44.  Back to cited text no. 33
Abdul-Ghani R, Qazzaz M, Dabdoub N, Muhammad R, Abdul-Ghani AS. Studies on cigarette smoke induced oxidative DNA damage and reduced spermatogenesis in rats. J Environ Biol 2014; 35: 943-7.  Back to cited text no. 34
La Maestra S, De Flora S, Micale RT. Effect of cigarette smoke on DNA damage, oxidative stress, and morphological alterations in mouse testis and spermatozoa. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2015; 218: 117-22.  Back to cited text no. 35
Ahmadnia H, Ghanbari M, Moradi MR, Khaje-Dalouee M. Effect of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis in rats. Urol J 2007; 4: 159-63.  Back to cited text no. 36
Xu W, Fang P, Zhu Z, Dai J, Nie D, et al. Cigarette smoking exposure alters pebp1 DNA methylation and protein profile involved in MAPK signaling pathway in mice testis. Biol Reprod 2013; 89: 142.  Back to cited text no. 37
González-Jiménez MA, Villanueva-Díaz CA. Epididymal stereocilia in semen of infertile men: evidence of chronic epididymitis? Andrologia 2006; 38: 26-30.  Back to cited text no. 38
Zhu Z, Xu W, Dai J, Chen X, Zhao X, et al. The alteration of protein profile induced by cigarette smoking via oxidative stress in mice epididymis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2013; 45: 571-82.  Back to cited text no. 39
Close CE, Roberts PL, Berger RE. Cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana are related to pyospermia in infertile men. J Urol 1990; 144: 900-3.  Back to cited text no. 40
Chia S, Ong C, Tsakok F. Effects of cigarette smoking on human semen quality. Syst Biol Reprod Med 1994; 33: 163-8.  Back to cited text no. 41
Moskova P, Popov I. Sperm quality in smokers and nonsmokers among infertile families. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia) 1993; 32: 28-30.  Back to cited text no. 42
Mak V, Jarvi K, Buckspan M, Freeman M, Hechter S, et al. Smoking is associated with the retention of cytoplasm by human spermatozoa. Urology 2000; 56: 463-6.  Back to cited text no. 43
Dikshit RK, Buch JG, Mansuri SM. Effect of tobacco consumption on semen quality of a population of hypofertile males. Fertil Steril 1987; 48: 334-6.  Back to cited text no. 44
Sofikitis N, Miyagawa I, Dimitriadis D, Zavos P, Sikka S, et al. Effects of smoking on testicular function, semen quality and sperm fertilizing capacity. J Urol 1995; 154: 1030-4.  Back to cited text no. 45
Vine MF, Tse CK, Hu P, Truong KY. Cigarette smoking and semen quality. Fertil Steril 1996; 65: 835-42.  Back to cited text no. 46
Rubes J, Lowe X, Moore D 2 nd , Perreault S, Slott V, et al. Smoking cigarettes is associated with increased sperm disomy in teenage men. Fertil Steril 1998; 70: 715-23.  Back to cited text no. 47
Zavos PM, Correa JR, Antypas S, Zarmakoupis-Zavos PN, Zarmakoupis CN. Effects of seminal plasma from cigarette smokers on sperm viability and longevity. Fertil Steril 1998; 69: 425-9.  Back to cited text no. 48
Zhang JP, Meng QY, Wang Q, Zhang LJ, Mao YL, et al. Effect of smoking on semen quality of infertile men in Shandong, China. Asian J Androl 2000; 2: 143-6.  Back to cited text no. 49
Trummer H, Habermann H, Haas J, Pummer K. The impact of cigarette smoking on human semen parameters and hormones. Hum Reprod 2002; 17: 1554-9.  Back to cited text no. 50
Künzle R, Mueller MD, Hänggi W, Birkhäuser MH, Drescher H, et al. Semen quality of male smokers and nonsmokers in infertile couples. Fertil Steril 2003; 79: 287-91.  Back to cited text no. 51
Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Aggerholm AS, Jensen MS, Toft G, et al. Is smoking a risk factor for decreased semen quality? A cross-sectional analysis. Hum Reprod 2007; 22: 188-96.  Back to cited text no. 52
Gaur DS, Talekar M, Pathak VP. Effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men. Singapore Med J 2007; 48: 119-23.  Back to cited text no. 53
Colagar AH, Jorsaraee GA, Marzony ET. Cigarette smoking and the risk of male infertility. Pak J Biol Sci 2007; 10: 3870-4.  Back to cited text no. 54
Kumosani TA, Elshal MF, Al-Jonaid AA, Abduljabar HS. The influence of smoking on semen quality, seminal microelements and Ca2+-ATPase activity among infertile and fertile men. Clin Biochem 2008; 41: 1199-203.  Back to cited text no. 55
Taha EA, Ez-Aldin AM, Sayed SK, Ghandour NM, Mostafa T. Effect of smoking on sperm vitality, DNA integrity, seminal oxidative stress, zinc in fertile men. Urology 2012; 80: 822-5.  Back to cited text no. 56
Vogt HJ, Heller WD, Borelli S. Sperm quality of healthy smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers. Fertil Steril 1986; 45: 106-10.  Back to cited text no. 57
Dunphy BC, Barratt CL, von Tongelen BP, Cooke ID. Male cigarette smoking and fecundity in couples attending an infertility clinic. Andrologia 1991; 23: 223-5.  Back to cited text no. 58
Osser S, Beckman-Ramirez A, Liedholm P. Semen quality of smoking and non-smoking men in infertile couples in a Swedish population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1992; 71: 215-8.  Back to cited text no. 59
Sepaniak S, Forges T, Gerard H, Foliguet B, Bene MC, et al. The influence of cigarette smoking on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation. Toxicology 2006; 223: 54-60.  Back to cited text no. 60
Ghaffari MA, Rostami M. The effect of cigarette smoking on human sperm creatine kinase activity: as an ATP buffering system in sperm. Int J Fertil Steril 2013; 6: 258-65.  Back to cited text no. 61
Cui YH, Zhao RL, Wang Q, Zhang ZY. Determination of sperm acrosin activity for evaluation of male fertility. Asian J Androl 2000; 2: 229-32.  Back to cited text no. 62
Zalata AA, Ahmed AH, Allamaneni SS, Comhaire FH, Agarwal A. Relationship between acrosin activity of human spermatozoa and oxidative stress. Asian J Androl 2004; 6: 313-8.  Back to cited text no. 63
Shrivastava V, Marmor H, Chernyak S, Goldstein M, Feliciano M, et al. Cigarette smoke affects posttranslational modifications and inhibits capacitation-induced changes in human sperm proteins. Reprod Toxicol 2014; 43: 125-9.  Back to cited text no. 64
Marczylo EL, Amoako AA, Konje JC, Gant TW, Marczylo TH. Smoking induces differential miRNA expression in human spermatozoa: a potential transgenerational epigenetic concern? Epigenetics 2012; 7: 432-9.  Back to cited text no. 65
Hamad MF, Shelko N, Kartarius S, Montenarh M, Hammadeh ME. Impact of cigarette smoking on histone (H2B) to protamine ratio in human spermatozoa and its relation to sperm parameters. Andrology 2014; 2: 666-77.  Back to cited text no. 66
Yu B, Qi Y, Liu D, Gao X, Chen H, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with abnormal histone-to-protamine transition in human sperm. Fertil Steril 2014; 101: 51-7.e1.  Back to cited text no. 67
Zavos PM, Correa JR, Karagounis CS, Ahparaki A, Phoroglou C, et al. An electron microscope study of the axonemal ultrastructure in human spermatozoa from male smokers and nonsmokers. Fertil Steril 1998; 69: 430-4.  Back to cited text no. 68
Yeung CH, Tüttelmann F, Bergmann M, Nordhoff V, Vorona E, et al. Coiled sperm from infertile patients: characteristics, associated factors and biological implication. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 1288-95.  Back to cited text no. 69
Collodel G, Capitani S, Pammolli A, Giannerini V, Geminiani M, et al. Semen quality of male idiopathic infertile smokers and nonsmokers: an ultrastructural study. J Androl 2010; 31: 108-13.  Back to cited text no. 70
Cinar O, Dilbaz S, Terzioglu F, Karahalil B, Yücel C, et al. Does cigarette smoking really have detrimental effects on outcomes of IVF? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2014; 174: 106-10.  Back to cited text no. 71
Zitzmann M, Rolf C, Nordhoff V, Schräder G, Rickert-Föhring M, et al. Male smokers have a decreased success rate for in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril 2003; 79 Suppl 3: 1550-4.  Back to cited text no. 72
Fuentes A, Muñoz A, Barnhart K, Argüello B, Díaz M, et al. Recent cigarette smoking and assisted reproductive technologies outcome. Fertil Steril 2010; 93: 89-95.  Back to cited text no. 73
Klonoff-Cohen H, Natarajan L, Marrs R, Yee B. Effects of female and male smoking on success rates of IVF and gamete intra-fallopian transfer. Hum Reprod 2001; 16: 1382-90.  Back to cited text no. 74
Antoniassi M, Intasqui P, Camargo M, Zylbersztejn D, Cedenho A, et al. Harmful effects of smoking to male fertility. Fertil Steril 2014; 102: e194-5.  Back to cited text no. 75
Fariello RM, Pariz JR, Spaine DM, Gozzo FC, Pilau EJ, et al. Effect of smoking on the functional aspects of sperm and seminal plasma protein profiles in patients with varicocele. Hum Reprod 2012; 27: 3140-9.  Back to cited text no. 76
Taha EA, Ezz-Aldin AM, Sayed SK, Ghandour NM, Mostafa T. Smoking influence on sperm vitality, DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species and zinc in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele. Andrologia 2014; 46: 687-91.  Back to cited text no. 77
Collodel G, Capitani S, Iacoponi F, Federico MG, Pascarelli NA, et al. Retrospective assessment of potential negative synergistic effects of varicocele and tobacco use on ultrastructural sperm morphology. Urology 2009; 74: 794-9.  Back to cited text no. 78
Blumer CG, Restelli AE, Giudice PT, Soler TB, Fraietta R, et al. Effect of varicocele on sperm function and semen oxidative stress. BJU Int 2012; 109: 259-65.  Back to cited text no. 79
Agarwal A, Sharma R, Durairajanayagam D, Cui Z, Ayaz A, et al. An integrated proteo-bioinformatics approach to gain insights in the pathophysiology of varicocele associated male infertility. Fertil Steril 2014; 102: e198.  Back to cited text no. 80
Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Desai NR, Prabakaran S, Tavares A, et al. Role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of varicocele and infertility. Urology 2009; 73: 461-9.  Back to cited text no. 81
Scarneciu I, Lupu S, Scarneciu CC. Smoking as a risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction and infertility in men; evaluation depending on the anxiety levels of these patients. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2014; 127: 437-42.  Back to cited text no. 82
Elhanbly S, Abdel-Gaber S, Fathy H, El-Bayoumi Y, Wald M, et al. Erectile dysfunction in smokers: a penile dynamic and vascular study. J Androl 2004; 25: 991-5.  Back to cited text no. 83
Zhang Q, Radisavljevic ZM, Siroky MB, Azadzoi KM. Dietary antioxidants improve arteriogenic erectile dysfunction. Int J Androl 2011; 34: 225-35.  Back to cited text no. 84
Cao S, Yin X, Wang Y, Zhou H, Song F, et al. Smoking and risk of erectile dysfunction: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013; 8: e60443.  Back to cited text no. 85
Rosen RC, Kupelian V. Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction and key risk factors. In: Contemporary Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction. Humana: Springer; 2011. p. 39-49.  Back to cited text no. 86
Oberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, Peruga A, Prüss-Ustün A. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet 2011; 377: 139-46.  Back to cited text no. 87
Benedict MD, Missmer SA, Vahratian A, Berry KF, Vitonis AF, et al. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of failed implantation and reduced IVF success. Hum Reprod 2011; 26: 2525-31.  Back to cited text no. 88
Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Storgaard L, Toft G, Olsen J, et al. Is prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking a cause of poor semen quality? A follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165: 1372-9.  Back to cited text no. 89
Jensen MS, Mabeck LM, Toft G, Thulstrup AM, Bonde JP. Lower sperm counts following prenatal tobacco exposure. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 2559-66.  Back to cited text no. 90
Ravnborg TL, Jensen TK, Andersson AM, Toppari J, Skakkebaek NE, et al. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index. Hum Reprod 2011; 26: 1000-11.  Back to cited text no. 91
Paccola CC, Neves FM, Cipriano I, Stumpp T, Miraglia SM. Effects of prenatal and lactation nicotine exposure on rat testicular interstitial tissue. Andrology 2014; 2: 175-85.  Back to cited text no. 92
Sobinoff AP, Sutherland JM, Beckett EL, Stanger SJ, Johnson R, et al. Damaging legacy: maternal cigarette smoking has long-term consequences for male offspring fertility. Hum Reprod 2014; 29: 2719-35.  Back to cited text no. 93
Kiziler AR, Aydemir B, Onaran I, Alici B, Ozkara H, et al. High levels of cadmium and lead in seminal fluid and blood of smoking men are associated with high oxidative stress and damage in infertile subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res 2007; 120: 82-91.  Back to cited text no. 94
Murphy MP, Holmgren A, Larsson NG, Halliwell B, Chang CJ, et al. Unraveling the biological roles of reactive oxygen species. Cell Metab 2011; 13: 361-6.  Back to cited text no. 95
Sharma RK, Pasqualotto FF, Nelson DR, Thomas AJ Jr, Agarwal A. The reactive oxygen species-total antioxidant capacity score is a new measure of oxidative stress to predict male infertility. Hum Reprod 1999; 14: 2801-7.  Back to cited text no. 96
Lewis C, Ford AT. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review. Aquat Toxicol 2012; 120-121: 79-89.  Back to cited text no. 97
Zini A, Libman J. Oxidative stress and male infertility. Syst Biol Free Radic Antioxid 2014 ; 6: 2815-33.  Back to cited text no. 98
Mostafa T, Tawadrous G, Roaia MM, Amer MK, Kader RA, et al. Effect of smoking on seminal plasma ascorbic acid in infertile and fertile males. Andrologia 2006; 38: 221-4.  Back to cited text no. 99
Elshal MF, El-Sayed IH, Elsaied MA, El-Masry SA, Kumosani TA. Sperm head defects and disturbances in spermatozoal chromatin and DNA integrities in idiopathic infertile subjects: association with cigarette smoking. Clin Biochem 2009; 42: 589-94.  Back to cited text no. 100
Yu B, Chen J, Liu D, Zhou H, Xiao W, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with human semen quality in synergy with functional NRF2 polymorphisms. Biol Reprod 2013; 89: 5.  Back to cited text no. 101
Nguyen T, Nioi P, Pickett CB. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway and its activation by oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 2009; 284: 13291-5.  Back to cited text no. 102
Mahfouz RZ, du Plessis SS, Aziz N, Sharma R, Sabanegh E, et al. Sperm viability, apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in human spermatozoa before and after induction of oxidative stress. Fertil Steril 2010; 93: 814-21.  Back to cited text no. 103
Viloria T, Garrido N, Fernández JL, Remohí J, Pellicer A, et al. Sperm selection by swim-up in terms of deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation as measured by the sperm chromatin dispersion test is altered in heavy smokers. Fertil Steril 2007; 88: 523-5.  Back to cited text no. 104
Ji G, Yan L, Wu S, Liu J, Wang L, et al. Bulky DNA adducts in human sperm associated with semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 2013; 12: 82.  Back to cited text no. 105
Ferramosca A, Pinto Provenzano S, Montagna DD, Coppola L, Zara V. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration. Urology 2013; 82: 78-83.  Back to cited text no. 106
Belcheva A, Ivanova-Kicheva M, Tzvetkova P, Marinov M. Effects of cigarette smoking on sperm plasma membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation. Int J Androl 2004; 27: 296-300.  Back to cited text no. 107
Tawadrous GA, Aziz AA, Mostafa T. Effect of smoking status on seminal parameters and apoptotic markers in infertile men. J Urol 2011; 186: 1986-90.  Back to cited text no. 108
Mostafa T. Cigarette smoking and male infertility. J Adv Res 2010; 1: 179-86.  Back to cited text no. 109
Dechanet C, Anahory T, Mathieu Daude JC, Quantin X, Reyftmann L, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction. Hum Reprod Update 2011; 17: 76-95.  Back to cited text no. 110


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Fetal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and male reproductive function in young adulthood
Katia Keglberg Hćrvig, Kajsa Ugelvig Petersen, Aleksander Giwercman, Karin Sřrig Hougaard, Birgit Bjerre Hřyer, Christian Lindh, Cecilia Hřst Ramlau-Hansen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Gunnar Toft, Jens Peter Bonde, Sandra Sřgaard Třttenborg
European Journal of Epidemiology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Integration of in silico methods to determine endocrine-disrupting tobacco pollutants binding potency with steroidogenic genes: comprehensive QSAR modeling and ensemble docking strategies
Kranthi Kumar Konidala, Umadevi Bommu, Neeraja Pabbaraju
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Risk factors on testicular function in adolescents
F. Cargnelutti, A. Di Nisio, F. Pallotti, M. Spaziani, M. G. Tarsitano, D. Paoli, C. Foresta
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Secondhand smoke affects reproductive functions by altering the mouse testis transcriptome, and leads to select intron retention in Pde1a
Stella Tommasi, Tevfik H. Kitapci, Hannah Blumenfeld, Ahmad Besaratinia
Environment International. 2022; 161: 107086
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Tabac et santé sexuelle masculine
Renaud Corral, Eric Lechevallier, Michael Baboudjian, Floriane Michel
Progrčs en Urologie - FMC. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Sperm concentration and semen volume increase after smoking cessation in infertile men
Deniz Kulaksiz, Tuncay Toprak, Eda Tokat, Mehmet Yilmaz, Mehmet Akif Ramazanoglu, Asgar Garayev, Muhammed Sulukaya, Recep Burak Degirmentepe, Elnur Allahverdiyev, Murat Gul, Ayhan Verit
International Journal of Impotence Research. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 An elderberry-supplemented diet improves spermatogenesis in mice with busulfan-induced azoospermia
Mohammadreza Mafi Balani, Mahsa Ghafari Novin, Mohammadamin Sabbagh Alvani, Pourya Raee, Azar Afshar, Fakhroddin Aghajanpour, Reza Soltani, Meysam Hassani Moghaddam, Mobina Fathi, Kimia Vakili, Maryam Salimi, Ahad Hasan Seyed Hasani, Shabnam Abdi, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Abbas Aliaghaei, James Cummins
Reproduction, Fertility and Development. 2022; 34(17): 1078
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 The changing tide of human fertility
R John Aitken
Human Reproduction. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Knowledge, attitude and perception among medical students and healthcare professionals regarding male infertility: a cross-sectional survey from Bangladesh
Mohammad Azmain Iktidar, Sreshtha Chowdhury, Simanta Roy, A M Khairul Islam, Mahzabeen Islam, Tonmoy Chowdhury, Mustari Nailah Tabassum, Tahsin Sumat Ali, Atandra Akash, Mashrur Ahmed, Faraz Al Zafar, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader
BMJ Open. 2022; 12(11): e062251
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Assessing equivalent and inverse change in genes between diverse experiments
Lisa Neums, Devin C. Koestler, Qing Xia, Jinxiang Hu, Shachi Patel, Shelby Bell-Glenn, Dong Pei, Bo Zhang, Samuel Boyd, Prabhakar Chalise, Jeffrey A. Thompson
Frontiers in Bioinformatics. 2022; 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 The Impact of the Main Negative Socio-Economic Factors on Female Fertility
Viorel ?arca, Elena ?arca, Florin-Alexandru Luca
Healthcare. 2022; 10(4): 734
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Molecular Alterations and Severe Abnormalities in Spermatozoa of Young Men Living in the “Valley of Sacco River” (Latium, Italy): A Preliminary Study
Pasquale Perrone, Gennaro Lettieri, Carmela Marinaro, Valentina Longo, Simonetta Capone, Angiola Forleo, Sebastiana Pappalardo, Luigi Montano, Marina Piscopo
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(17): 11023
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Influence of Risk Factors for Male Infertility on Sperm Protein Composition
Marie Bisconti, Jean-François Simon, Sarah Grassi, Baptiste Leroy, Baptiste Martinet, Vanessa Arcolia, Vladimir Isachenko, Elise Hennebert
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23): 13164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Untargeted Urinary Metabolomics and Children’s Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: The Influence of Individual Differences
Huiwei Zhu,Abu S. Abdullah,Jingyi He,Jianxiong Xi,Yimeng Mao,Yitian Feng,Qianyi Xiao,Pinpin Zheng
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2): 710
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Investigating the Role of the microRNA-34/449 Family in Male Infertility: A Critical Analysis and Review of the Literature
Konstantinos Pantos,Sokratis Grigoriadis,Penelope Tomara,Ioanna Louka,Evangelos Maziotis,Agni Pantou,Nikolaos Nitsos,Terpsithea Vaxevanoglou,Georgia Kokkali,Ashok Agarwal,Konstantinos Sfakianoudis,Mara Simopoulou
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 The amelioration of nicotine-induced reproductive impairment in male mouse by Sambucus ebulus L. fruit extract
Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi,Korosh Khanaki,Hamid Moravati,Masoumeh Faghani
Anatomy & Cell Biology. 2021; 54(2): 232
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Hydrogen Gas: A Novel Type of Antioxidant in Modulating Sexual Organs Homeostasis
Yaxing Zhang,Haimei Liu,Jinwen Xu,Shuhui Zheng,Lequan Zhou,Patricia Morales
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Utilization of preconception care and its impacts on health behavior changes among expectant couples in Shanghai, China
Li Du,Xuena La,Liping Zhu,Hong Jiang,Biao Xu,An Chen,Mu Li
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Influence of tobacco cigarette heavy smoking on DNA methylation patterns and transcription levels of MAPK8IP3, GAA, ANXA2, PRRC2A, and PDE11A genes in human spermatozoa
Mohammed M. Laqqan, Maged M. Yassin
Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2021; 26(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Yohanes Widyakusuma Eka Saputra,Kristanti Wanito Wigati,Rina Yudiwati,Ni Wajan Tirthaningsih
Majalah Biomorfologi. 2021; 31(2): 31
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Impact of Heavy Metals on Human Male Fertility—An Overview
Andrea López-Botella,Irene Velasco,Maribel Acién,Paula Sáez-Espinosa,José-Luis Todolí-Torró,Raquel Sánchez-Romero,María José Gómez-Torres
Antioxidants. 2021; 10(9): 1473
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Redox Regulation to Modulate Phosphorylation Events in Human Spermatozoa
Steven Serafini, Cristian O'Flaherty
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The mutagenic effect of tobacco smoke on male fertility
Temidayo S. Omolaoye,Omar El Shahawy,Bongekile T. Skosana,Thomas Boillat,Tom Loney,Stefan S du Plessis
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Cigarette heavy smoking alters DNA methylation patterns and gene transcription levels in humans spermatozoa
Mohammed M. Laqqan, Maged M. Yassin
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 miRNA-138-5p suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis in testicular cells by targeting Caspase-3 through the Bcl-2 signaling pathway
Lijuan He,Haiyan Gong,Shuping You,Chen Zhang,Chunxue Zhong,Linlin Li
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Der Einfluss von Umweltfaktoren und Lebensstil auf die männliche Fertilität
Frank-Michael Köhn,Hans-Christian Schuppe
Der Gynäkologe. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Does methylphenidate use affect sperm parameters in patients undergoing infertility investigation? A retrospective analysis of 9769 semen samples
Hadar Shalev,Yuval Mizrakli,Atif Zeadna,Avi Harlev,Etan Levitas,Gal Ifergane,Eitan Lunenfeld,Victor Novack,Iris Har-Vardi,Eliahu Levitas
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Structural binding perspectives of a major tobacco alkaloid, nicotine, and its metabolite cotinine with sex-steroid nuclear receptors
Mohd Rehan,Ejaz Ahmad,Mohd A. Beg
Journal of Applied Toxicology. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Andrologische Diagnostik vor einer reproduktionsmedizinischen Behandlung
F. M. Köhn,S. Kliesch,G. M. Pinggera,H.-C. Schuppe,F. Tüttelmann
Der Urologe. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Current Insights and Latest Updates in Sperm Motility and Associated Applications in Assisted Reproduction
Reyon Dcunha,Reda S. Hussein,Hanumappa Ananda,Sandhya Kumari,Satish Kumar Adiga,Nagarajan Kannan,Yulian Zhao,Guruprasad Kalthur
Reproductive Sciences. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Use of e-cigarettes associated with lower sperm counts in a cross-sectional study of young men from the general population
Stine Agergaard Holmboe,Lćrke Priskorn,Tina Kold Jensen,Niels Erik Skakkebaek,Anna-Maria Andersson,Niels Jřrgensen
Human Reproduction. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Effects of paternal exposure to tertiary cigarette smoke on fetal morphometry and cognition of the offspring and its impact towards pollution
A R Furqaani,L H Siswanti,A K Sari,W Oktaviana,N Febriyanty,S A Putri
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2020; 1469: 012120
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 High Sperm DNA Damage
Keith Jarvi
Urologic Clinics of North America. 2020; 47(2): 165
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Transgenerational Epigenetics
Mathew M. Grover,Timothy G. Jenkins
Urologic Clinics of North America. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Selenium Sources differ in their potential to alleviate the cadmium-induced Testicular Dysfunction
Cong Zhang,Yan Huang,Milton Talukder,Jing Ge,Mei-Wei Lv,Shao-Shuai Bi,Jin-Long Li
Environmental Pollution. 2020; : 115610
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Catalase as a Molecular Target for Male Infertility Diagnosis and Monitoring: An Overview
Nuria Rubio-Riquelme,Natalia Huerta-Retamal,María José Gómez-Torres,Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa
Antioxidants. 2020; 9(1): 78
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Oxidative Stress in Male Infertility: Causes, Effects in Assisted Reproductive Techniques, and Protective Support of Antioxidants
Jordi Ribas-Maynou,Marc Yeste
Biology. 2020; 9(4): 77
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Association Analysis and Meta-Analysis of Multi-Allelic Variants for Large-Scale Sequence Data
Yu Jiang,Sai Chen,Xingyan Wang,Mengzhen Liu,William G. Iacono,John K. Hewitt,John E. Hokanson,Kenneth Krauter,Markku Laakso,Kevin W. Li,Sharon M. Lutz,Matthew McGue,Anita Pandit,Gregory J.M. Zajac,Michael Boehnke,Goncalo R. Abecasis,Scott I. Vrieze,Bibo Jiang,Xiaowei Zhan,Dajiang J. Liu
Genes. 2020; 11(5): 586
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Predictor for unfavorable Johnsen scoring in non-obstructive azoospermia before intra cytoplasmic sperm insemination and its outcome
Muhammad A. Abu,Siti A. Tajuddin,Abdul K. Abdul Karim,Mohd F. Ahmad,Zainul R. Mohd Razi,Mohd H. Omar
Minerva Ginecologica. 2020; 72(5)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Prevalence of Alcohol and Tobacco Use in India and Implications for COVID-19 - Niyantrita Madhumeha Bharata Study Projections
Madhava Sai Sivapuram, Raghuram Nagarathna, Akshay Anand, Suchitra Patil, Amit Singh, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
Journal of Medicine and Life. 2020; 13(4): 499
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Can mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate testicular damage? Current researches
Büsra ÇETINKAYA ÜN,Meryem Akpolat FERAH,Burak ÜN
Journal of Surgery and Medicine. 2020; 4(7): 603
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Evaluation of the protective effects of icariin on nicotine-induced reproductive toxicity in male mouse –a pilot study
Guochao Ni,Xuhui Zhang,Seth Yaw Afedo,Rong Rui
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2020; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 The role of physiologically occurring elements in semen and effect of heavy metals on semen
Dorota Chyra-Jach,Zbigniew Kaletka,Aleksandra Kasperczyk
Annales Academiae Medicae Silesiensis. 2020; 74: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Systematic review and meta-analysis as a structured platform for teaching principles of experimentation
Stephen C. Land,David Booth
Advances in Physiology Education. 2020; 44(3): 276
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Reasons for worldwide decline in male fertility
Uday Mann,Benjamin Shiff,Premal Patel
Current Opinion in Urology. 2020; 30(3): 296
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Paternal Smoking Before Conception and During Pregnancy Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Yue Cao,Jing Lu,Jing Lu
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 2020; 42(1): 32
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Association of lifestyle factors with semen quality: A pilot study conducted in men from the Portuguese Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro region followed in fertility support consultations
Patrícia Pinto-Pinho,Joana Matos,Regina Arantes-Rodrigues,Zélia Gomes,Miguel Brito,Osvaldo Moutinho,Bruno Colaço,Rosário Pinto-Leite
Andrologia. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Do lifestyle practices impede male fertility?
Kristian Leisegang,Sulagna Dutta
Andrologia. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Predicting Seminal Quality and its Dependence on Life Style Factors Through Ensemble Learning
Satya Ranjan Dash,Ratula Ray
International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications. 2020; 11(2): 78
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Renin Angiotensin System, COVID-19 and Male Fertility: Any Risk for Conceiving?
Lorella Pascolo,Gabriella Zito,Luisa Zupin,Stefania Luppi,Elena Giolo,Monica Martinelli,Daniela De Rocco,Sergio Crovella,Giuseppe Ricci
Microorganisms. 2020; 8(10): 1492
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Effects of Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury on the Structure and Function of Reproductive Organs
Peter Massányi,Martin Massányi,Roberto Madeddu,Robert Stawarz,Norbert Lukác
Toxics. 2020; 8(4): 94
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Substance Abuse and Male Hypogonadism
Sridharan Duca,Sridharan Aversa,Sridharan Condorelli,Sridharan Calogero,Sridharan Vignera
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(5): 732
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Relationship Between Smoking Habit and Sperm Parameters Among Patients Attending an Infertility Clinic
Rehana Rehman,Nida Zahid,Sofia Amjad,Mukhtiar Baig,Zohair Jamil Gazzaz
Frontiers in Physiology. 2019; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Correlation of plasma kisspeptin with total testosterone levels in smokeless tobacco and smoking tobacco users in a healthy cohort: A cross-sectional study
Syed Salman Shah,Mohsin Shah,Syed Hamid Habib,Fawad Ali Shah,Muhammad Omar Malik
Andrologia. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Food: Review of a Global Problem
Lesa A. Thompson,Wageh S. Darwish
Journal of Toxicology. 2019; 2019: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Nicotine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Primary Endometrial Cells
Fatemeh Khademi,Hamidreza Totonchi,Neda Mohammadi,Razieh Zare,Fatemeh Zal
International Journal of Toxicology. 2019; 38(3): 202
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Passive smoking induces rat testicular injury via the FAS/FASL pathway
Yanling Yao,Jing Zhang,Ping Tian,Linlin Li,Xiaoxi Huang,Maitinashi Nawutayi,Yunfei Huang,Chen Zhang
Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Cigarette smoking and its toxicological overview on human male fertility—a prospective review
R. Parameswari,T. B. Sridharan
Toxin Reviews. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Predictive factors for sperm retrieval from males with azoospermia who are eligible for testicular sperm extraction (TESE)
Doroteja Pavan-Jukic,David Stubljar,Tomislav Jukic,Andrej Starc
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Andrologische Anamnese – welche Fragen sollten auch Gynäkologen stellen?
F.-M. Köhn,H. M. Behre,H.-C. Schuppe
Gynäkologische Endokrinologie. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Andrologische Diagnostik vor einer reproduktionsmedizinischen Behandlung
F. M. Köhn,S. Kliesch,G. M. Pinggera,H.-C. Schuppe,F. Tüttelmann
Gynäkologische Endokrinologie. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Deterioration of semen quality and sperm-DNA integrity as influenced by cigarette smoking in fertile and infertile human male smokers-A prospective study
Parameswari Ranganathan,Kamini Aravind Rao,Sridharan Thalaivarasai Balasundaram
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Einfluss von Lebensstil und Umweltfaktoren auf die reproduktive Gesundheit des Mannes
H.-C. Schuppe,F.-M. Köhn
Der Hautarzt. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 The possible protective role of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on testicular and epididymal structure and sperm parameters in nicotine-treated adult rats (a histological and biochemical study)
Dalia A. Mohamed,Shaimaa A. Abdelrahman
Cell and Tissue Research. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Lifestyle causes of male infertility
Damayanthi Durairajanayagam
Arab Journal of Urology. 2018; 16(1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Semen quality and sperm DNA damage associa –revised – final-finalted with oxidative stress in relation to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Hueiwang Anna C. Jeng,Wen Y. Lin,Mu R. Chao,Wen Y. Lin,Chih H. Pan
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2018; 53(14): 1221
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Body burden of toxic metals and rare earth elements in non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarette users
Mihaela Badea,Octavio P. Luzardo,Ana González-Antuńa,Manuel Zumbado,Liliana Rogozea,Laura Floroian,Dana Alexandrescu,Marius Moga,Laura Gaman,Mariana Radoi,Luis D. Boada,Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Environmental Research. 2018; 166: 269
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an inflammatory, systemic, lifestyle endocrinopathy
Seema Patel
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Cadmium effects on sperm morphology and semenogelin with relates to increased ROS in infertile smokers: An in vitro and in silico approach
Parameswari Ranganathan,Kamini A. Rao,Jesu Jaya Sudan,Sridharan Balasundaram
Reproductive Biology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility
Andrea Sansone,Carla Di Dato,Cristina de Angelis,Davide Menafra,Carlotta Pozza,Rosario Pivonello,Andrea Isidori,Daniele Gianfrilli
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2018; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Association Between Paternal Alcohol Consumption Before Conception and Anogenital Distance of Offspring
Ruilan Xia,Longmei Jin,Dekun Li,Hong Liang,Fen Yang,Jianping Chen,Wei Yuan,Maohua Miao
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Reduction in Prevalence of Hypertension and Blood Heavy Metals among Curry-Consumed Korean
Jo-Woong Choi,Chorong Oh,Sun-Yup Shim,Suyoun Jeong,Hyung Sik Kim,Min-Sun Kim
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2018; 244(3): 219
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Fertility hormones and vitamin E in active and passive adult male smokers in Calabar, Nigeria
Iya Eze Bassey,Rebecca Mtaku Gali,Alphonsus Ekpe Udoh,Xuejiang Guo
PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(11): e0206504
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Scientometric study of the effects of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on fertility: A contribution to understanding the reasons of partial failure
Nicola Bernabň,Rosa Ciccarelli,Luana Greco,Alessandra Ordinelli,Mauro Mattioli,Barbara Barboni,Sergi Lozano
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(12): e0187890
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 The role of immunological testing and intervention in reproductive medicine: A fertile collaboration?
Syed B. Ali,Yogesh Jeelall,Craig E. Pennell,Roger Hart,Andrew McLean-Tooke,Michaela Lucas
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2017; : e12784
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 The effect of cigarette smoking on human seminal parameters, sperm chromatin structure and condensation
R. M. Mostafa,Y. S. Nasrallah,M. M. Hassan,A. F. Farrag,A. Majzoub,A. Agarwal
Andrologia. 2017; : e12910
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Cigarette smoking significantly alters sperm DNA methylation patterns
T. G. Jenkins,E. R. James,D. F. Alonso,J. R. Hoidal,P. J. Murphy,J. M. Hotaling,B. R. Cairns,D. T. Carrell,K. I. Aston
Andrology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Influence of TNF-alpha inhibitors and fumaric acid esters on male fertility in psoriasis patients
F. Heppt,A. Colsman,A. Maronna,U. Uslu,M.V. Heppt,F. Kiesewetter,M. Sticherling
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Semen quality in the 21st century
Helena E. Virtanen,Niels Jřrgensen,Jorma Toppari
Nature Reviews Urology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Human sperm DNA damage inhibition and antioxidant activity of T. arjuna bark: an in vitro study
Parameswari R,Kamini A. Rao,K. Mano,M. Aruna,AS Vickram,M. Rameshpathy,TB Sridharan
3 Biotech. 2017; 7(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Kein Nachwuchs in Sicht: Sind Alkohol und Zigaretten schuld?
Frank-Michael Köhn,Hans-Christian Schuppe
MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin. 2017; 159(20): 50
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Cigarette smoke induces rat testicular injury via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway
Lijuan He,Shuping You,Haiyan Gong,Jing Zhang,Li Wang,Chen Zhang,Yunfei Huang,Chunxue Zhong,Ying Zou
Molecular Reproduction and Development. 2017; 84(10): 1053
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Couple's infertility in relation to male smoking in a Chinese rural area
Fen Yang,Lin Li,Jian-Ping Chen,Xiao-Qin Liu,Chun-Li Zhong,Yuan Yang,Yan-Feng Ren,Wei Yuan,Hong Liang,Mao-Hua Miao
Asian Journal of Andrology. 2017; 19(3): 311
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Potential effect of smoking on semen quality through DNA damage and the downregulation of Chk1 in sperm
Molecular Medicine Reports. 2016; 14(1): 753
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 Umweltfaktoren und männliche Fertilität
F.-M. Köhn,H. C. Schuppe
Der Urologe. 2016; 55(7): 877
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Concepts in diagnosis and therapy for male reproductive impairment
Herman Tournaye,Csilla Krausz,Robert D Oates
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Chronic exposures and male fertility: the impacts of environment, diet, and drug use on spermatogenesis
J. S. Gabrielsen,C. Tanrikut
Andrology. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Tobacco smoke exposure induces irreversible alteration of testicular function in prepubertal rats
Jonah S. Aprioku,Theresa C. Ugwu
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 2016; 27(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Protein profile screening: reduced expression ofSordin the mouse epididymis induced by nicotine inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation level in capacitated spermatozoa
Jingbo Dai,Wangjie Xu,Xianglong Zhao,Meixing Zhang,Dong Zhang,Dongsheng Nie,Min Bao,Zhaoxia Wang,Lianyun Wang,Zhongdong Qiao
Reproduction. 2016; 151(3): 227
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Adverse effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on reproductive outcomes
Michael K Wong,Nicole G Barra,Nadia Alfaidy,Daniel B Hardy,Alison C Holloway
Reproduction. 2015; 150(6): R185
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Subacute Exposure of Smokeless Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke on Rat Testis
Jonah Sydney Aprioku,Theresa Chioma Ugwu
International Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2015; 2015: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Hazardous Substa...
Smoking and Test...
Smoking and Epid...
Smoking and Sper...
Smoking and Vari...
Tobacco Smoking ...
Environmental an...
Biochemical Abno...
Discussion and C...
Author Contributions
Competing Interests
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1491    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 91    

Recommend this journal