Table of Contents  
INVITED REVIEW
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 450-458

Male obesity and subfertility, is it really about increased adiposity?


1 Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, The Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia; Freemasons Foundation Center for Mens Health, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
2 Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, The Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia; Monash IVF Group, Melbourne, Victoria 3168, Australia

Date of Submission16-Sep-2014
Date of Decision10-Nov-2014
Date of Acceptance18-Dec-2014
Date of Web Publication23-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Nicole O McPherson
Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, The Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia; Freemasons Foundation Center for Mens Health, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.148076

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in reproductive-aged men is increasing worldwide, with >70% of men >18 years classified as overweight or obese in some western nations. Male obesity is associated with male subfertility, impairing sex hormones, reducing sperm counts, increasing oxidative sperm DNA damage and changing the epigenetic status of sperm. These changes to sperm function as a result of obesity, are further associated with impaired embryo development, reduced live birth rates and increased miscarriage rates in humans. Animal models have suggested that these adverse reproductive effects can be transmitted to the offspring; suggesting that men's health at conception may affect the health of their children. In addition to higher adiposity, male obesity is associated with comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, hyperleptinemia and a pro-inflammatory state, all which have independently been linked with male subfertility. Taken together, these findings suggest that the effects of male obesity on fertility are likely multifactorial, with associated comorbidities also influencing sperm, pregnancy and subsequent child health.

Keywords: embryo; fertility; infertility; inflammation; metabolic syndrome; sperm


How to cite this article:
McPherson NO, Lane M. Male obesity and subfertility, is it really about increased adiposity?. Asian J Androl 2015;17:450-8

How to cite this URL:
McPherson NO, Lane M. Male obesity and subfertility, is it really about increased adiposity?. Asian J Androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Jul 31];17:450-8. Available from: https://www.ajandrology.com/text.asp?2015/17/3/450/148076 - DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.148076


  Introduction Top


Overweight/obesity is a global health problem that is reaching epidemic proportions with 2.1 billion adults classified as overweight or obese. [1] Since the 1970's the rates of overweight and obesity in reproductive-age men has nearly tripled, such that in westernized countries between 65% and 70% of adult men are now overweight or obese (Australia 68.2%, Canada 64.5%, USA 70.9% and UK 66.6%). [1] There is an increasing awareness that male overweight/obesity reduces sperm quality, and in particular alters the physical and molecular structure of sperm, [2]-[4] which is coincident with a growing number of couples requiring intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of male factor sperm defects. [5],[6] In conjunction, obesity is also associated with a number of chronic states including metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease and a pro-inflammatory state. Interestingly, metabolic syndrome, hyperlipidemia and a pro-inflammatory state are all independently linked with male subfertility. [7] It, therefore, remains to be determined how obesity elicits its effects on sperm, whether through higher levels of adiposity, an associated comorbidity or a combination of both. This review will provide an update on the current literature, as well as present some discussion around how comorbidities associated with obesity may be related to specific changes in sperm function and pregnancy health.


  Male Obesity And Hypogonadism Top


Examining the effect of obesity on the hormone regulation of spermatogenesis is underpinned by the hypothesis that the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis is deregulated by obesity. Several studies document that increased male body mass index (BMI) is associated with decreased plasma concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) testosterone, and a concomitant increased plasma concentration of estrogen. [8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18] Lower testosterone and higher estrogen concentrations have long been associated with subfertility and reduced sperm counts through disruption of the negative feedback loop of the HPG axis, and are, therefore, common clinical markers of male fertility. [19] The Sertoli cell is of particular interest in male subfertility as it is the only somatic cell in direct contact with the developing germ cell providing both physical and nutritional support. Adhesion of the developing germ cells to the Sertoli cells is dependent on testosterone, with a decrease in testosterone levels leading to retention and phagocytosis of mature spermatids, and reducing sperm counts. [20],[21] Other hormones involved in the regulation of Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis, such as follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone (LH) ratios, inhibin B and SHBG levels, have all been observed to be lower in males with high BMI. [2],[3],[4],[8],[9],[[10],[14]


  Male Obesity Impairs Sperm Function Top


Sperm parameters

The effect of male obesity on sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology) has been well documented in human and animal models. There is a general consensus that in rodent models diet-induced male obesity reduces sperm motility, decreases sperm counts with increases in epididymal sperm transit time, and decreases the percentage of sperm with normal morphology. [22]-[30] However, there is currently one rodent study that found no effect of high-fat diet feeding for 16 weeks on sperm motility. [24] This may be explained by the minimal increase in serum cholesterol in the high-fat fed group, an intermediary factor which previously had been negatively correlated with sperm motility independent to the treatment group in a similar mouse model. [31] In addition, it should be noted that a number of these rodent studies reported significant reductions in serum testosterone levels and altered glucose homeostasis in the high-fat diet fed males, which could exacerbate the changes to sperm function observed.

Currently, the impact of male obesity on sperm count, motility and morphology in humans is controversial, with many contradicting studies. For example, reduced progressive motility is only reported in 13 out of 35 reports [Table 1], while the number reporting decreased sperm with normal morphology is reported in just 9 of 29 papers [Table 1]. The discrepancies observed in the literature likely result from several limitations that are inherent in human studies. First, these studies can be confounded by lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational drug use as well as co-factors such as metabolic syndrome, all which can impair sperm function. Second, as the majority of studies originate from fertility clinics where patient cohorts are frequently biased toward subfertile men, this may also confound findings. Thirdly, some studies rely on self-reporting of parameters, such as lifestyle factors and BMI, which can lead to inaccurate reporting. The most recent systematic review established that there was a J-shaped curve correlation with male BMI and abnormal sperm count, with overweight and obesity associated with higher rates of oligozoospermia (low sperm count) and azoospermia (no sperm) through evaluation of 21 studies. [32] This contradicted the previous systematic review in 2010 which stated no such effect. [2] The earlier systematic review drew its conclusions based on five studies, as data from other studies could not be consolidated, and therefore may have underestimated the effect of male overweight and obesity on sperm count.
Figure 1: Hypothesis of how changes to circulating lipids, metabolites and a pro-inflammatory state associated with obesity may change the epigenetic status of sperm that ultimately cause subfertility.

Click here to view


Male obesity reactive oxygen species and dna integrity

In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that the content and structure of sperm DNA is equally, if not more important, than traditional WHO sperm parameters for determining the ability of sperm to generate a healthy pregnancy. [33] One of the main contributors for impairing sperm DNA structure is reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is commonly elevated in subfertile men. [34] Sperm is highly susceptible to ROS, as the majority of their antioxidant defense mechanisms are lost during the shedding of the cytoplasm at the final stages of spermiogenesis. [35],[36] Sperm DNA integrity is vital for fertilization and embryonic development with a number of studies showing clear negative associations between sperm with high DNA damage and pregnancy outcomes. [37],[38],[39],[40],[41] In addition, high levels of seminal ROS have been linked with lower embryo implantation rates following assisted reproductive technologies. [42]-[44] There is a clear consensus in current literature that male obesity is associated with higher levels of sperm DNA damage (10 out of 12 studies show an increase), despite the use of various methodologies to measure sperm DNA integrity (i.e., TUNEL, COMET and SCSA). [10],[11],[14],[18],[45]-[53] This rise in sperm DNA damage, as a result of increased adiposity, has also been confirmed in rodent models of male obesity. [26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31]

Only five studies until date, one human11 and four rodent, [27],[28],[29],[31] have directly linked levels of sperm oxidative stress with male obesity, concluding that a positive association exists between increasing adiposity and higher sperm/seminal plasma ROS levels. Rodent models suggest increased oxidative stress may also be present in testicular tissue, with alterations in oxidative stress genes (Sod, Gsh-px, Catalse, Nrf2, Cyp2e1, Cyp19a1, Tnf and Pparg) observed in testes of high fat diet fed males. [29],[30] Therefore, it appears that male obesity may be associated with significant perturbations to oxidative state and DNA integrity of sperm, and have repercussions not only on sperm function, but on the resultant embryo. [54]

Sperm binding and mitochondrial function

Sperm parameters, including sperm binding and sperm mitochondrial health, are increasingly used for assessing functionality of sperm. Currently, only two human studies [55],[56] and two rodent models [27],[31] have measured sperm binding in relation to male obesity. Interestingly, the two human studies contradict each other, with one [55] showing decreased sperm binding to hyaluronan coated slides as BMI increased, and the other [56] reporting no change to sperm binding to human zona pellucida as a result of increasing BMI. These discrepancies could be related to differences in the populations of men selected in each study (included all types and cause of infertility), or the methods used for determining sperm binding (HBT assay as assessed in only provides an indirect assessment sperm binding). [55] In contrast, the two studies to date using rodent models of male obesity found that mice fed a high-fat diet had reduced sperm binding to mouse oocytes, which was directly related to reduced sperm capacitation and fertilization. [27],[31] These studies demonstrate a lack of coherence and the need for more controlled studies to establish a relationship between male obesity and sperm binding.

Three recent studies in humans have assessed the effects of male obesity on sperm mitochondrial function. [18],[48],[53] Two of the studies (JC-1 and mitochondrial C oxidize), found that sperm from male patients of higher BMI exhibited lower mitochondrial activity and lower mitochondrial membrane potential, [18],[48] whereas Leisegang et al. additionally found that patients with higher BMI had increasing numbers of sperm with disturbed mitochondrial membrane potential. It is hypothesized that a cascade of events will occur due to these poor lifestyle behaviors beginning with impaired mitochondrial function and resulting in the generation of ROS and initiation of DNA damage. [57]-[59] Therefore, higher rates of DNA damage and alterations to sperm motility described in patients with increasing BMI may be related to dysfunctional sperm mitochondria.


  Seminal Plasma Composition Top


Growing evidence suggests that the seminal plasma may help modulate sperm function and their ability to interact with the female reproductive tract. [60],[61] Consequently, any changes to seminal plasma composition as a result of obesity may interfere with these processes. Fructose levels are significantly higher in seminal plasma of overweight and obese men [62] with adiponectin, progranulin and alpha-glucosidase levels significantly lower. [47],[62] Fructose is a carbohydrate transported into sperm and is one of its main energy sources. [63] Whether the high fructose levels in seminal plasma of obese males can explain the changes to sperm mitochondrial function remains to be determined. Alpha-glucosidase is an enzyme that is involved in sperm motility acquisition [64] and its decreased levels in seminal plasma of patients with high BMI may contribute to their reported motility defects. The role of adipokines (adiponectin and progranulin) in seminal plasma and on sperm function remains unclear. However, it is hypothesized that higher levels of adipocytes from increased epididymal fat associated with obesity may intensify secretion of these molecules into epididymal fluid, altering sperm function. [47]


  Does adiposity Alone Explain the Observed Effects? Top


While increasing BMI and adiposity have shown a clear influence on male sperm function and DNA integrity, it is unknown whether the direct mechanism is from increased adiposity or an associated comorbidity. Although BMI provides a useful population measure of overweight and obesity, as it is the same for both sexes and all ages of adults, it can only be considered a guide, as the correlation between the level of adiposity and BMI can vary between individuals and does not always take into account differences in muscle mass. [65] A number of studies assessing male obesity and fertility have used waist circumference in conjunction with BMI, [51],[53],[66] as waist circumference in humans has been determined to be a better indicator for cardiometabolic disease risk. [67] However, a benefit of animal models is that more extensive measures of adiposity can be obtained, which usually includes measures of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, [31],[68] as well as postmortem analysis of total adiposity, weight gain, [26],[69],[70] measurement of individual adipose depots in the central body cavity, [27],[71] or a combination of these. [31] Furthermore, most animal studies assess metabolic parameters of the males that can provide additional information as to their metabolic and pro-inflammatory state. [27],[31],[71],[72]

A recent rodent model of male obesity examined the impact of diet and/or exercise interventions on obesity-induced male subfertility. Despite the fact that improvements to sperm function (motility, DNA damage, ROS and mitochondrial function) were seen in all intervention groups, [31] interestingly only the exercise intervention group displayed improved sperm function even though their adiposity levels remained higher compared to controls. [31] This suggests that adiposity alone is not the sole determinant in the impaired sperm function ascribed to male obesity, with glucose regulation and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism independent predictors of sperm function. [31] Furthermore in humans, male obesity has been associated with higher seminal plasma insulin and leptin levels with these same metabolites similarly deregulated in serum. [53] Both leptin and insulin have been shown to be present in human semen and are vital for sperm motility, capacitation and fertilization. [73],[74] Hence, these observations support the hypothesis that increased adiposity may not be the sole driver for the impaired reproductive function of obese males. This may in part, explain some of the contradictions in the current literature around the direct effects of obesity on sperm parameters, as to date, the majority of human studies have not assessed metabolic parameters of the males.

Glucose and insulin

Hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia are common comorbidities in obese males and are also intermediary factors of obesity in many rodent studies. [23],[31],[72] Hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on sperm quantity and quality (in the absence of obesity). [75],[76] Common perturbations to sperm function in obesity such as decreased count, increased ROS and sperm DNA damage, are also prevalent in diabetic men. [76],[77] High circulating levels of plasma insulin and insulin levels in seminal plasma of obese men [53] may contribute to perturbed sperm mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of obesity through alterations in cholesterol influx during capacitation and dysregulation of sperm energy homeostasis. [73],[74] Furthermore, higher concentration of insulin reduces the production of SHBG, indirectly increasing the amount of active unbound estrogens and testosterone (not bound by SHBG) in the bloodstream. [78] Similarly, increased levels of circulating glucose have been shown to reduce the amount of LH released by the anterior pituitary in sheep, [79],[80] which may further impair the HPG axis and altered sperm function seen in both diabetic and overweight/obese men. There is emerging evidence that low testosterone levels can also induce aspects of metabolic syndrome, and that obesity may not be the direct cause of reduced sperm counts seen in these men but rather a symptom of the same low testosterone. [81]-[83] In addition, high circulating levels of glucose in men with type I diabetes, independent of obesity, increases sperm oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adducts [84] via increased oxidative stress. [85] This highlights that not only can dysregulation of glucose and insulin perturb sperm function and hypogonadism, but also likely alters sperm DNA integrity. Thus, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycaemia may be intermediates between male obesity and altered sperm function and may also be unrelated causes of altered sperm function, independent to BMI.

Lipids

High serum cholesterol levels are commonly seen in men with increased adiposity. [86] High serum cholesterol concentrations without a marked increase to body weight in a rabbit model has previously been reported to cause sperm dysfunction, with reduced sperm motility, count, morphology, capacitation and semen volume reported. [87] A large human cohort has also determined the negative impact of dyslipidemia on sperm function, assessing systematic lipid regulation in 501 men over two semen samples. [88] They found that higher levels of serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipids were associated with a significantly lower percentage of sperm with an intact acrosome and smaller sperm heads after adjusting for BMI. [88] These changes to sperm are proposed to occur in the epididymis, where high levels of circulating cholesterols cause degradation in the proximal epididymis leading to sperm morphological abnormalities, decreased motility and premature acrosome reaction in a rodent model. [89] In addition, exposures to increasing levels of cholesterols as well as FFA in both human and animal sperm in vitro, caused higher levels of sperm oxidative stress, [90] which in itself can alter embryo and pregnancy outcomes. [42]-[44] Furthermore, seminal plasma saturated fatty acid levels in humans have been negatively related to sperm motility and count. [91] Further evidence implicating lipid dysregulation as a causative factor for impairing sperm function have been shown in intervention models. Olive oil supplements specifically designed to reduce plasma cholesterols in a rabbit model of high fat diet feeding demonstrated improvements to sperm motility capacitation and membrane integrity in those rabbits with restored cholesterol homeostasis, [92] and highlights the importance of cholesterol and lipid regulation for male fertility.

Leptin

Leptin plays an important role in regulating appetite and body weight, with leptin resistance resulting in elevated serum leptin concentrations commonly seen in overweight and obese men. [93] More recently a role for leptin was discovered in male fertility. Mammalian sperm contains the leptin receptor with seminal plasma containing leptin. [94] Leptin is required for sperm capacitation as it enhances cholesterol efflux and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, enabling mammalian sperm to modulate their metabolism, motility, and nitric oxide production with systematic leptin concentrations. [73],[95],[96] Seminal leptin concentrations are commonly elevated in subfertile men and have been negatively correlated with progressive sperm motility. [97],[98] Additionally, systemic leptin concentrations in humans have been linked with perturbed testicular function through hormonal dysregulation of Leydig cell function and testosterone production.99 In comparison, a mouse model of leptin dysregulation (ob/ob mice) that had a spontaneous mutation in their leptin gene became obese and were infertile. [100] However, the fertility of ob/ob males can be restored by leptin treatment, with leptin-treated ob/ob males having restored testicular weights and histology resulting in normal pregnancies and offspring upon mating. [100] Interestingly, recovery of fertility is not restored through weight loss, [100] again suggesting that metabolic state and not just adiposity is a determinate of fertility.

Inflammation

Increased visceral adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation (pro-inflammatory state), which is characterized by the production of abnormal adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factors and interleukins. [93] A pro-inflammatory state induced by infection, environmental toxins, smoking or vasectomy reversals in men is associated with subfertility phenotypes similar to male obesity, including reduced sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, increased anti-sperm antibodies, increased sperm ROS and DNA damage. [101] A link between male obesity and testes inflammation has been shown in a mouse model of obesity (through high-fat diet feeding) and type 2 diabetes (low dose streptozotocin). [102] Pro-inflammatory factors including endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperones and inhibitory κBβ were higher in testicular tissue of obese and diabetic mice. [102] These pro-inflammatory factors were associated with Leydig cell dysfunction. With a decrease in the levels of mRNA and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, insulin receptor substrate, activated IκBβ and ER stress chaperone C/EBP homologous protein, likely attributed to their hypogonadism. [102] In addition, tumor necrosis factor-a, which is more abundant in obesity, 93 has been shown to lower human sperm membrane permeability to Ca( 2+ ), and affect Ca( 2+ ) regulation in sperm cells in vitro, likely through higher levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation, [103] further suggesting a link between poor sperm function and a pro-inflammatory state.


  Consequences of Male Obesity at Conception Top


There is increasing evidence that male obesity not only negatively affects sperm function but is implicated in influencing pregnancy and offspring health. An overweight or obese male partner, with a female of normal BMI, has an increased infertility as compared with couples of normal weight. [104],[105] A small number of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-based studies suggest similar outcomes, with obesity in males associated with reduced clinical pregnancy, decreased live birth rates and an increase in pregnancy-loss in couples. [16],[106]-[110] In part, this effect appears to be due to reduced blastocyst development, sperm binding and fertilization rates during IVF, when the male partner is overweight or obese. [107],[108],[110],[111] However, the same effect cannot always been seen with ICSI. Some reports show reduced pregnancy rates from obese males during ICSI cycles, [109],[110] and yet three studies [50],[106],[112] saw no effect of male obesity on fertilization or live birth rates following ICSI. This suggests that the process of ICSI could potentially bypass the impairment of sperm function resulting from male obesity. More studies would be welcomed on this topic as limitations regarding sample size, cycle numbers, known female and male factor infertility, classification of groups (overweight + obese [BMI >25 kg m -2 or just obese [BMI >30 kg m -2 ), inclusion of female BMI, smoking status, and the use of either IVF or ICSI, are potential confounders.

Rodent models of male obesity [23],[69],[70],[113] enable the investigation of invasive molecular markers of embryo viability that are not possible to conduct in humans. When male mice were fed a high fat diet, embryos had extended 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd cleavage times, reduced cavitation and compaction, [69],[70],[113],[114] as well as reduced cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm in the late blastocysts. [69],[70],[113],[114] These abnormalities caused functional reductions in outgrowth when embryos were plated onto a fibronectin cell layer. [69] It has been hypothesized that changes to embryo development and cell numbers are caused by alterations to mitochondrial function. The embryos produced by high-fat fed male rodents display reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, suggestive of uncoupling of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. [69] Additionally, they display higher rates of the cellular glycolysis with an increased rate of glucose uptake and lactate production. [70] The adverse mitochondrial phenotypes in the developing embryo have previously shown alterations to implantation and fetal growth. [115],[116] The reported changes to embryo cell numbers, metabolism and function from rodent models of male obesity are the likely causes of reduced implantation and pregnancy rates seen in both human and animal models. Taken together, the animal models of obesity and human clinical data suggest that the male obesity has a negative effect on embryo health, implantation, pregnancy establishment, and live birth outcomes.

It has been widely accepted that maternal BMI and glucose status preconception, during gestation, and during lactation, can program the resultant children for obesity and diabetes. [117] Recent studies now suggest that paternal health at conception can also impact on offspring health. Obese fathers are more likely to father an obese child [118] with altered IGF-2 methylation patterns in cord blood of their children. [119] Rodent models of male obesity have shown obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, pancreatic islet cell dysfunction, and changes in white adipose transcriptional profiles in female and male offspring throughout two generations. [71],[72],[120] These studies have provided some of the first evidence that paternal obesity at conception can program offspring to adverse metabolic health outcomes.

How metabolites and inflammation associated with obesity may contribute to paternal programming of pregnancy and offspring health.

A number of obesity-related comorbidities (as mentioned above), have also been shown to reduce pregnancy and offspring health, independent of obesity. For example, high circulation levels of glucose in men with type I diabetes resulted in reduced live birth rates, [121] and in a rodent model, reduced offspring growth and weight into adulthood. [122] Furthermore, a paternal pro-inflammatory state is also associated with reduced pregnancy rates and higher susceptibility to cancer and childhood malformations in subsequent offspring. [123],[124]

A likely contributing factor is increased sperm DNA fragmentation, which is commonly elevated in obesity and its associated comorbidities. A two-step hypothesis for the development of DNA damage from environmental perturbations in human sperm has been proposed by Aitken and Curry, [57] Aitken and De Iuliis. [125] The first step describes defective chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis, with sperm released from the lumen of the seminiferous tubules in an imperfect state (altered protamination as well as a number of other structural defects), creating a sperm cell that is vulnerable to attack. The second-step states that as a result of poor protamination, the sperm are vulnerable to DNA strand breaks, likely mediated through oxidative stress which increases sperm apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Current literature implicates circulating metabolites and inflammation as causative agents in the imperfect spermiogenesis and further suggests that this involves perturbations to epigenetic status of sperm. We hypothesize that circulating metabolites and a pro-inflammatory state have a multifactorial approach and can alter (1) protamination and microRNA abundance during spermiogenesis, (2) change the epididymal microenvironment during sperm maturation as well as (3) directly target epigenetic marks of mature sperm [Figure 1].
Table 1: Discordance in studies with male obesity and its effect on WHO sperm parameters


Click here to view


Protamination and microRNA abundance during spermatogenesis

Sperm protamination is usually incomplete with around 1% of histones remaining in murine sperm [126] and up to 15% residual in human sperm. [127] There is evidence that the retention of these histones is not random, with key pluripotent genes necessary for early embryo development remaining histone bound. [128] The process of histone to protamine transition is reliant on histone acetylation and their regulators. Both histone deacetylases and acetylases, [129] with histone acetylation, are thought of as epigenetic markers capable of being transmitted to the oocyte during fertilization. Histone deacetylases can be regulated by metabolic state with a mouse model of obesity, high cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations shown to alter histone acetylation during spermiogenesis, changing the gene expression and protein levels of SIRT6, a histone deacetylase. [24] Results showed increases in DNA damage in transitional spermatids, and in DNA damage and functional changes in mature sperm. Thus, changes to the regulation of histone deacetylases via alterations to serum lipids could result in perturbed or increased retention of histones and changes to histone acetylation, which could be inherited and alter offspring phenotypes. It is still to be determined whether these changes to histone deacetylase can be restored via interventions to reduce circulating lipids. However, preliminary studies which reversed high cholesterol levels via olive oil supplementation in rabbits showed improvements to sperm motility, capacitation and membrane integrity. [92]

MicroRNAs are important for the regulation of spermatogenesis and are present during the final stages of sperm maturation and during fertilization. [130] Evidence shows that the microRNA composition of spermatozoa can respond to environmental factors such as stress, and via this mechanism, make an important epigenetic contribution to the progeny persisting into future generations. [131] We previously reported dysregulation of microRNAs in the testes and mature sperm of rodent males fed a high-fat diet. This dysregulation of microRNAs altered levels of mRNA targets involved in molecular networks in embryonic development (pluripotency), metabolic disease (leptin/insulin signaling and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism), transcriptional regulation, RNA posttranslational modification and inflammation. [71] However, it was recently shown that microRNA can regulate metabolic and pro-inflammatory state, specifically playing an important role in the regulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis, and cytokine secretion. [132],[133] Increases to serum cholesterol concentrations, glucose levels and interleukins are associated with changes to serum microRNAs. [134],[135] As sperm microRNAs can alter the phenotype of the embryo and subsequent offspring, [136] changes to metabolic health and inflammatory states of males could result in abundance of sperm microRNAs. This may form the basis for altered sperm microRNAs in rodent models of obesity via high fat diet feeding.

Epididymal microenvironment

The epididymal endothelium transports proteins to the surface of sperm necessary for sperm maturation, which is proposed to occur through epididymosomes. [137] A recent study has shown that these epididymosomes can also transport microRNAs. [138] The epididymal endothelial ion transporters are operational between the circulating blood and epididymial lumen, [89],[90] suggesting that increases to serum metabolites, pro-inflammatory state, or changes to the secretions of endothelium can alter sperm membrane fluidity, and therefore enhance or reduce susceptibility to damage. Hypercholesterolemia is able to alter the structure of epididymal endothelium and potential function, [89] while inflammation, as a result of epididymitis, may increase the influx of neutrophils and macrophages to the epididymial endothelium resulting in higher cytokine expression and apoptosis. [139] This indicates that changes to circulating metabolites and/or a pro-inflammatory state may alter epididymal endothelium function, modifying the epididymosomes content (i.e., protein and microRNA content) delivered to sperm.

Mature sperm

Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that increased exposure to cholesterol, FFAs, glucose insulin, and high levels of inflammatory cytokines alter sperm metabolism, reducing sperm motility and increasing sperm oxidative damage. Due to a lack of cytoplasmic scavenging enzymes and high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative damage. [125] Increased levels of ROS are associated with changes to global methylation profiles of sperm. [140] Further hypomethylation of imprinting genes and repeat elements in sperm are linked with reduced pregnancy rates. [141],[142] Sperm harbor the oxidative form of 5-methylcytosine (5-hydroxymethylcytosine) [143] which is now considered the 6 th DNA base [144] and important during the early stages of pronuclear formation. [145] 5-methylcytosine has been shown to oxidize to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the presence of ROS. [146] It is, therefore, plausible that obesity-related changes to circulating metabolites and a pro-inflammatory state may alter the methylation profiles of sperm via ROS, and be passed onto the newly fertilized embryo.[162]


  Conclusion Top


It is being increasingly documented that male overweight/obesity has a negative impact on sperm DNA quality and therefore on the subsequent pregnancy and offspring health. However, discordance in current literature about overweight/obesity effects on sperm parameters supports the hypothesis that increased adiposity may not be the sole driver of impaired reproductive function in obese males, with comorbidities also influencing reproductive health. This may in part, help explain some of the contradictions in the current literature as to date, the majority of human studies have not assessed the metabolic or inflammatory state of their patient population (i.e., glucose and insulin tolerance and C-reactive protein), typically relying on BMI as a marker for adiposity. In addition, the adiposity of the female partner is not always taken into account given the frequency of both partners being overweight or obese. As altered metabolic or pro-inflammatory states are independently linked with perturbed sperm function and can alter the epigenetic and chromatin state of sperm, we should be looking beyond BMI in the clinic and assess the entire metabolic and inflammatory profile of the patient, developing individual patient plans for the treatment of subfertility. Future studies assessing the impact of increased adiposity, with or without altered metabolic health in humans, will help to determine the impact increased adiposity has on sperm function. Whether this is a secondary phenotype to altered blood metabolites, and/or a pro-inflammatory state as a result of poor nutrition and lack of exercise, is still to be determined.


  Author Contributions Top


NOM and ML wrote and edited the manuscript.


  Acknowledgments Top


The authors would like to acknowledge Sandi Elliott for proof reading the manuscript to correct grammar and spelling.


  Competing Interests Top


All authors declare no competing financial interests.

 
  References Top

1.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2014; 384: 766-81.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
MacDonald AA, Herbison GP, Showell M, Farquhar CM. The impact of body mass index on semen parameters and reproductive hormones in human males: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2010; 16: 293-311.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Teerds KJ, de Rooij DG, Keijer J. Functional relationship between obesity and male reproduction: from humans to animal models. Hum Reprod Update 2011; 17: 667-83.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Du Plessis SS, Cabler S, McAlister DA, Sabanegh E, Agarwal A. The effect of obesity on sperm disorders and male infertility. Nat Rev Urol 2010; 7: 153-61.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sunderam S, Chang J, Flowers L, Kulkarni A, Sentelle G, et al. Assisted reproductive technology surveillance - United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ 2009; 58: 1-25.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wang YA, Dean J, Badgery-Parker T, Sullivan EA. Assisted reproduction technology in Australia and New Zealand; 2006. Assisted Reproduction Technology series, 12; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Klöting N, Blüher M. Adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2014; 15: 277-87.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Aggerholm AS, Thulstrup AM, Toft G, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Bonde JP. Is overweight a risk factor for reduced semen quality and altered serum sex hormone profile? Fertil Steril 2008; 90: 619-26.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ramlau-Hansen CH, Hansen M, Jensen CR, Olsen J, Bonde JP, et al. Semen quality and reproductive hormones according to birthweight and body mass index in childhood and adult life: two decades of follow-up. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 610-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Paasch U, Grunewald S, Kratzsch J, Glander HJ. Obesity and age affect male fertility potential. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 2898-901.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Tunc O, Bakos HW, Tremellen K. Impact of body mass index on seminal oxidative stress. Andrologia 2011; 43: 121-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Fejes I, Koloszár S, Závaczki Z, Daru J, Szöllösi J, et al. Effect of body weight on testosterone/estradiol ratio in oligozoospermic patients. Arch Androl 2006; 52: 97-102.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Pauli EM, Legro RS, Demers LM, Kunselman AR, Dodson WC, et al. Diminished paternity and gonadal function with increasing obesity in men. Fertil Steril 2008; 90: 346-51.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Chavarro JE, Toth TL, Wright DL, Meeker JD, Hauser R. Body mass index in relation to semen quality, sperm DNA integrity, and serum reproductive hormone levels among men attending an infertility clinic. Fertil Steril 2010; 93: 2222-31.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Hofny ER, Ali ME, Abdel-Hafez HZ, Kamal Eel-D, Mohamed EE, et al. Semen parameters and hormonal profile in obese fertile and infertile males. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 581-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Hinz S, Rais-Bahrami S, Kempkensteffen C, Weiske WH, Miller K, et al. Effect of obesity on sex hormone levels, antisperm antibodies, and fertility after vasectomy reversal. Urology 2010; 76: 851-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Jensen TK, Andersson AM, Jørgensen N, Andersen AG, Carlsen E, et al. Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: 863-70.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
La Vignera S, Condorelli RA, Vicari E, Calogero AE. Negative effect of increased body weight on sperm conventional and nonconventional flow cytometric sperm parameters. J Androl 2012; 33: 53-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Handelsman DJ, Swerdloff RS. Male gonadal dysfunction. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985; 14: 89-124.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kerr JB, Millar M, Maddocks S, Sharpe RM. Stage-dependent changes in spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells in relation to the onset of spermatogenic failure following withdrawal of testosterone. Anat Rec 1993; 235: 547-59.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Kerr JB, Savage GN, Millar M, Sharpe RM. Response of the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis to withdrawal of androgen: evidence for direct effect upon intercellular spaces associated with Sertoli cell junctional complexes. Cell Tissue Res 1993; 274: 153-61.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Fernandez CD, Bellentani FF, Fernandes GS, Perobelli JE, Favareto AP, et al. Diet-induced obesity in rats leads to a decrease in sperm motility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2011; 9: 32.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Ghanayem BI, Bai R, Kissling GE, Travlos G, Hoffler U. Diet-induced obesity in male mice is associated with reduced fertility and potentiation of acrylamide-induced reproductive toxicity. Biol Reprod 2010; 82: 96-104.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Palmer NO, Fullston T, Mitchell M, Setchell BP, Lane M. SIRT6 in mouse spermatogenesis is modulated by diet-induced obesity. Reprod Fertil Dev 2011; 23: 929-39.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Fernandes GS, Arena AC, Campos KE, Volpato GT, Anselmo-Franci JA, et al. Glutamate-induced obesity leads to decreased sperm reserves and acceleration of transit time in the epididymis of adult male rats. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2012; 10: 105.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Vendramini V, Cedenho AP, Miraglia SM, Spaine DM. Reproductive function of the male obese Zucker rats: alteration in sperm production and sperm DNA damage. Reprod Sci 2014; 21: 221-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Bakos HW, Mitchell M, Setchell BP, Lane M. The effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on sperm function and fertilization in a mouse model. Int J Androl 2011; 34: 402-10.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Chen XL, Gong LZ, Xu JX. Antioxidative activity and protective effect of probiotics against high-fat diet-induced sperm damage in rats. Animal 2013; 7: 287-92.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Zhao J, Zhai L, Liu Z, Wu S, Xu L. Leptin level and oxidative stress contribute to obesity - Induced low testosterone in murine testicular tissue. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014; 2014: 190945.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Duale N, Steffensen IL, Andersen J, Brevik A, Brunborg G, et al. Impaired sperm chromatin integrity in obese mice. Andrology 2014; 2: 234-43.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Palmer NO, Bakos HW, Owens JA, Setchell BP, Lane M. Diet and exercise in an obese mouse fed a high-fat diet improve metabolic health and reverse perturbed sperm function. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012; 302: E768-80.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Sermondade N, Faure C, Fezeu L, Shayeb AG, Bonde JP, et al. BMI in relation to sperm count: an updated systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2013; 19: 221-31.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Lewis SE, John Aitken R, Conner SJ, Iuliis GD, Evenson DP, et al. The impact of sperm DNA damage in assisted conception and beyond: recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Reprod Biomed Online 2013; 27: 325-37.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Tremellen K. Oxidative stress and male infertility - A clinical perspective. Hum Reprod Update 2008; 14: 243-58.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
de Lamirande E, Gagnon C. Impact of reactive oxygen species on spermatozoa: a balancing act between beneficial and detrimental effects. Hum Reprod 1995; 10 Suppl 1: 15-21.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Aitken J, Fisher H. Reactive oxygen species generation and human spermatozoa: the balance of benefit and risk. Bioessays 1994; 16: 259-67.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Kumar K, Deka D, Singh A, Mitra DK, Vanitha BR, et al. Predictive value of DNA integrity analysis in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss following spontaneous conception. J Assist Reprod Genet 2012; 29: 861-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Bakos HW, Thompson JG, Feil D, Lane M. Sperm DNA damage is associated with assisted reproductive technology pregnancy. Int J Androl 2008; 31: 518-26.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Gallagher JE, Vine MF, Schramm MM, Lewtas J, George MH, et al. 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in human sperm cells from smokers and nonsmokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993; 2: 581-5.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Brahem S, Mehdi M, Landolsi H, Mougou S, Elghezal H, et al. Semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation as causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Urology 2011; 78: 792-6.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Thomson LK, Zieschang JA, Clark AM. Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in sperm has a negative impact on clinical pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination but not intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Fertil Steril 2011; 96: 843-7.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Aitken RJ, Baker MA. Oxidative stress, sperm survival and fertility control. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2006; 250: 66-9.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Aziz N, Saleh RA, Sharma RK, Lewis-Jones I, Esfandiari N, et al. Novel association between sperm reactive oxygen species production, sperm morphological defects, and the sperm deformity index. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 349-54.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Zorn B, Vidmar G, Meden-Vrtovec H. Seminal reactive oxygen species as predictors of fertilization, embryo quality and pregnancy rates after conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Int J Androl 2003; 26: 279-85.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Kort HI, Massey JB, Elsner CW, Mitchell-Leef D, Shapiro DB, et al. Impact of body mass index values on sperm quantity and quality. J Androl 2006; 27: 450-2.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Dupont C, Faure C, Sermondade N, Boubaya M, Eustache F, et al. Obesity leads to higher risk of sperm DNA damage in infertile patients. Asian J Androl 2013; 15: 622-5.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Thomas S, Kratzsch D, Schaab M, Scholz M, Grunewald S, et al. Seminal plasma adipokine levels are correlated with functional characteristics of spermatozoa. Fertil Steril 2013; 99: 1256-1263.e3.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Fariello RM, Pariz JR, Spaine DM, Cedenho AP, Bertolla RP, et al. Association between obesity and alteration of sperm DNA integrity and mitochondrial activity. BJU Int 2012; 110: 863-7.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Rybar R, Kopecka V, Prinosilova P, Markova P, Rubes J. Male obesity and age in relationship to semen parameters and sperm chromatin integrity. Andrologia 2011; 43: 286-91.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Thomsen L, Humaidan P, Bungum L, Bungum M. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction. Asian J Androl 2014; 16: 749-54.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Eisenberg ML, Kim S, Chen Z, Sundaram R, Schisterman EF, et al. The relationship between male BMI and waist circumference on semen quality: data from the LIFE study. Hum Reprod 2015; 30: 493-4.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Macdonald AA, Stewart AW, Farquhar CM. Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in New Zealand men: a cross-sectional study in fertility clinics. Hum Reprod 2013; 28: 3178-87.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Leisegang K, Bouic PJ, Menkveld R, Henkel RR. Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2014; 12: 34.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Aitken RJ, Baker MA. Causes and consequences of apoptosis in spermatozoa; contributions to infertility and impacts on development. Int J Dev Biol 2013; 57: 265-72.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Wegner CC, Clifford AL, Jilbert PM, Henry MA, Gentry WL. Abnormally high body mass index and tobacco use are associated with poor sperm quality as revealed by reduced sperm binding to hyaluronan-coated slides. Fertil Steril 2010; 93: 332-4.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Sermondade N, Dupont C, Faure C, Boubaya M, Cedrin-Durnerin I, et al. Body mass index is not associated with sperm-zona pellucida binding ability in subfertile males. Asian J Androl 2013; 15: 626-9.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Aitken RJ, Curry BJ. Redox regulation of human sperm function: from the physiological control of sperm capacitation to the etiology of infertility and DNA damage in the germ line. Antioxid Redox Signal 2011; 14: 367-81.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Aitken RJ, Gibb Z, Mitchell LA, Lambourne SR, Connaughton HS, et al. Sperm motility is lost in vitro as a consequence of mitochondrial free radical production and the generation of electrophilic aldehydes but can be significantly rescued by the presence of nucleophilic thiols. Biol Reprod 2012; 87: 110.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Aitken RJ, Koppers AJ. Apoptosis and DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Asian J Androl 2011; 13: 36-42.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Bromfield JJ. Seminal fluid and reproduction: much more than previously thought. J Assist Reprod Genet 2014; 31: 627-36.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Rodríguez-Martínez H, Kvist U, Ernerudh J, Sanz L, Calvete JJ. Seminal plasma proteins: what role do they play? Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66 Suppl 1: 11-22.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Martini AC, Tissera A, Estofán D, Molina RI, Mangeaud A, et al. Overweight and seminal quality: a study of 794 patients. Fertil Steril 2010; 94: 1739-43.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Bucci D, Rodriguez-Gil JE, Vallorani C, Spinaci M, Galeati G, et al. GLUTs and mammalian sperm metabolism. J Androl 2011; 32: 348-55.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Cooper TG. Secretory proteins from the epididymis and their clinical relevance. Andrologia 1990; 22 Suppl 1: 155-65.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
WHO. Obsity and Overweight - Fact sheet 311; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Gutorova NV, Kleshchyov MA, Tipisova EV, Osadchuk LV. Effects of overweight and obesity on the spermogram values and levels of reproductive hormones in the male population of the European North of Russia. Bull Exp Biol Med 2014; 157: 95-8.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 379-84.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
McPherson NO, Bakos HW, Setchell BP, Owens JA, Lane M. Improving metabolic health in obese male mice via diet and exercise restores embryo development and fetal growth. PLOS One 2013; 8:e71459.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Binder NK, Hannan NJ, Gardner DK. Paternal diet-induced obesity retards early mouse embryo development, mitochondrial activity and pregnancy health. PLoS One 2012; 7: e52304.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Binder NK, Mitchell M, Gardner DK. Parental diet-induced obesity leads to retarded early mouse embryo development and altered carbohydrate utilisation by the blastocyst. Reprod Fertil Dev 2012; 24: 804-12.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Fullston T, Ohlsson Teague EM, Palmer NO, DeBlasio MJ, Mitchell M, et al. Paternal obesity initiates metabolic disturbances in two generations of mice with incomplete penetrance to the F2 generation and alters the transcriptional profile of testis and sperm microRNA content. FASEB J 2013; 27: 4226-43.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Ng SF, Lin RC, Laybutt DR, Barres R, Owens JA, et al. Chronic high-fat diet in fathers programs ß-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring. Nature 2010; 467: 963-6.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Lampiao F, du Plessis SS. Insulin and leptin enhance human sperm motility, acrosome reaction and nitric oxide production. Asian J Androl 2008; 10: 799-807.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Andò S, Aquila S. Arguments raised by the recent discovery that insulin and leptin are expressed in and secreted by human ejaculated spermatozoa. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2005; 245: 1-6.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Kasturi SS, Tannir J, Brannigan RE. The metabolic syndrome and male infertility. J Androl 2008; 29: 251-9.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, D'Agata R, Calogero AE. Diabetes mellitus and sperm parameters. J Androl 2012; 33: 145-53.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Amaral S, Oliveira PJ, Ramalho-Santos J. Diabetes and the impairment of reproductive function: possible role of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species. Curr Diabetes Rev 2008; 4: 46-54.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.
Laing I, Olukoga AO, Gordon C, Boulton AJ. Serum sex-hormone-binding globulin is related to hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity but not to beta-cell function in men and women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 473-9.  Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.
Clarke IJ, Horton RJ, Doughton BW. Investigation of the mechanism by which insulin-induced hypoglycemia decreases luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized ewes. Endocrinology 1990; 127: 1470-6.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.
Medina CL, Nagatani S, Darling TA, Bucholtz DC, Tsukamura H, et al. Glucose availability modulates the timing of the luteinizing hormone surge in the ewe. J Neuroendocrinol 1998; 10: 785-92.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.
Haring R, Völzke H, Felix SB, Schipf S, Dörr M, et al. Prediction of metabolic syndrome by low serum testosterone levels in men: results from the study of health in Pomerania. Diabetes 2009; 58: 2027-31.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.
Akishita M, Fukai S, Hashimoto M, Kameyama Y, Nomura K, et al. Association of low testosterone with metabolic syndrome and its components in middle-aged Japanese men. Hypertens Res 2010; 33: 587-91.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.
Kupelian V, Page ST, Araujo AB, Travison TG, Bremner WJ, et al. Low sex hormone-binding globulin, total testosterone, and symptomatic androgen deficiency are associated with development of the metabolic syndrome in nonobese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 843-50.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.
Agbaje IM, McVicar CM, Schock BC, McClure N, Atkinson AB, et al. Increased concentrations of the oxidative DNA adduct 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine in the germ-line of men with type 1 diabetes. Reprod Biomed Online 2008; 16: 401-9.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.
Mallidis C, Agbaje I, O'Neill J, McClure N. The influence of type 1 diabetes mellitus on spermatogenic gene expression. Fertil Steril 2009; 92: 2085-7.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.
Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients 2013; 5: 1218-40.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.
Saez Lancellotti TE, Boarelli PV, Monclus MA, Cabrillana ME, Clementi MA, et al. Hypercholesterolemia impaired sperm functionality in rabbits. PLoS One 2010; 5: e13457.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.
Schisterman EF, Mumford SL, Chen Z, Browne RW, Boyd Barr D, et al. Lipid concentrations and semen quality: the LIFE study. Andrology 2014; 2: 408-15.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.
Saez F, Ouvrier A, Drevet JR. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability. Asian J Androl 2011; 13: 11-7.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.
Koppers AJ, Garg ML, Aitken RJ. Stimulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production by unesterified, unsaturated fatty acids in defective human spermatozoa. Free Radic Biol Med 2010; 48: 112-9.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.
Attaman JA, Toth TL, Furtado J, Campos H, Hauser R, et al. Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Hum Reprod 2012; 27: 1466-74.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.
Saez Lancellotti TE, Boarelli PV, Romero AA, Funes AK, Cid-Barria M, et al. Semen quality and sperm function loss by hypercholesterolemic diet was recovered by addition of olive oil to diet in rabbit. PLoS One 2013; 8: e52386.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.
Kaur J. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract 2014; 2014: 943162.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.
Jope T, Lammert A, Kratzsch J, Paasch U, Glander HJ. Leptin and leptin receptor in human seminal plasma and in human spermatozoa. Int J Androl 2003; 26: 335-41.  Back to cited text no. 94
    
95.
Glander HJ, Lammert A, Paasch U, Glasow A, Kratzsch J. Leptin exists in tubuli seminiferi and in seminal plasma. Andrologia 2002; 34: 227-33.  Back to cited text no. 95
    
96.
Aquila S, Gentile M, Middea E, Catalano S, Morelli C, et al. Leptin secretion by human ejaculated spermatozoa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 4753-61.  Back to cited text no. 96
    
97.
Hanafy S, Halawa FA, Mostafa T, Mikhael NW, Khalil KT. Serum leptin correlates in infertile oligozoospermic males. Andrologia 2007; 39: 177-80.  Back to cited text no. 97
    
98.
Jahan S, Bibi R, Ahmed S, Kafeel S. Leptin levels in infertile males. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2011; 21: 393-7.  Back to cited text no. 98
    
99.
Zorn B, Osredkar J, Meden-Vrtovec H, Majdic G. Leptin levels in infertile male patients are correlated with inhibin B, testosterone and SHBG but not with sperm characteristics. Int J Androl 2007; 30: 439-44.  Back to cited text no. 99
    
100.
Mounzih K, Lu R, Chehab FF. Leptin treatment rescues the sterility of genetically obese ob/ob males. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 1190-3.  Back to cited text no. 100
    
101.
Bachir BG, Jarvi K. Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic conditions resulting in male infertility. Urol Clin North Am 2014; 41: 67-81.  Back to cited text no. 101
    
102.
Liu GL, Zhang YM, Dai DZ, Ding MJ, Cong XD, et al. Male hypogonadism induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin is mediated by activated endoplasmic reticulum stress and IκBβ and attenuated by argirein and valsartan. Eur J Pharmacol 2013; 713: 78-88.  Back to cited text no. 102
    
103.
Carrasquel G, Camejo MI, Michelangeli F, Ruiz MC. Effect of tumor necrosis factor - A on the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in human sperm. Am J Reprod Immunol 2013; 70: 153-61.  Back to cited text no. 103
    
104.
Nguyen RH, Wilcox AJ, Skjaerven R, Baird DD. Men's body mass index and infertility. Hum Reprod 2007; 22: 2488-93.  Back to cited text no. 104
    
105.
Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Nohr EA, Bonde JP, Sørensen TI, et al. Subfecundity in overweight and obese couples. Hum Reprod 2007; 22: 1634-7.  Back to cited text no. 105
    
106.
Keltz J, Zapantis A, Jindal SK, Lieman HJ, Santoro N, et al. Overweight men: clinical pregnancy after ART is decreased in IVF but not in ICSI cycles. J Assist Reprod Genet 2010; 27: 539-44.  Back to cited text no. 106
    
107.
Bakos HW, Henshaw RC, Mitchell M, Lane M. Paternal body mass index is associated with decreased blastocyst development and reduced live birth rates following assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1700-4.  Back to cited text no. 107
    
108.
Merhi ZO, Keltz J, Zapantis A, Younger J, Berger D, et al. Male adiposity impairs clinical pregnancy rate by in vitro fertilization without affecting day 3 embryo quality. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013; 21: 1608-12.  Back to cited text no. 108
    
109.
Ramasamy R, Bryson C, Reifsnyder JE, Neri Q, Palermo GD, et al. Overweight men with nonobstructive azoospermia have worse pregnancy outcomes after microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Fertil Steril 2013; 99: 372-6.  Back to cited text no. 109
    
110.
Colaci DS, Afeiche M, Gaskins AJ, Wright DL, Toth TL, et al. Men's body mass index in relation to embryo quality and clinical outcomes in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 2012; 98: 1193-9.e1.  Back to cited text no. 110
    
111.
Hwang K, Walters RC, Lipshultz LI. Contemporary concepts in the evaluation and management of male infertility. Nat Rev Urol 2011; 8: 86-94.  Back to cited text no. 111
    
112.
Petersen GL, Schmidt L, Pinborg A, Kamper-Jorgensen M. The influence of female and male body mass index on live births after assisted reproductive technology treatment: a nationwide register-based cohort study. Fertil Steril 2013; 99: 1654-62.  Back to cited text no. 112
    
113.
Mitchell M, Bakos HW, Lane M. Paternal diet-induced obesity impairs embryo development and implantation in the mouse. Fertil Steril 2011; 95: 1349-53.  Back to cited text no. 113
    
114.
McPherson NO, Bakos HW, Owens JA, Setchell BP, Lane M. Improving metabolic health in obese male mice via diet and exercise restores embryo development and fetal growth. PLoS One 2013; 8: e71459.  Back to cited text no. 114
    
115.
Wakefield SL, Lane M, Mitchell M. Impaired mitochondrial function in the preimplantation embryo perturbs fetal and placental development in the mouse. Biol Reprod 2011; 84: 572-80.  Back to cited text no. 115
    
116.
Lane M, Gardner DK. Understanding cellular disruptions during early embryo development that perturb viability and fetal development. Reprod Fertil Dev 2005; 17: 371-8.  Back to cited text no. 116
    
117.
O'Reilly JR, Reynolds RM. The risk of maternal obesity to the long-term health of the offspring. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2013; 78: 9-16.  Back to cited text no. 117
    
118.
Li L, Law C, Lo Conte R, Power C. Intergenerational influences on childhood body mass index: the effect of parental body mass index trajectories. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89: 551-7.  Back to cited text no. 118
    
119.
Soubry A, Schildkraut JM, Murtha A, Wang F, Huang Z, et al. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort. BMC Med 2013; 11: 29.  Back to cited text no. 119
    
120.
Ng SF, Lin RC, Maloney CA, Youngson NA, Owens JA, et al. Paternal high-fat diet consumption induces common changes in the transcriptomes of retroperitoneal adipose and pancreatic islet tissues in female rat offspring. FASEB J 2014; 28: 1830-41.  Back to cited text no. 120
    
121.
Sjöberg L, Pitkäniemi J, Haapala L, Kaaja R, Tuomilehto J. Fertility in people with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2013; 56: 78-81.  Back to cited text no. 121
    
122.
Grasemann C, Devlin MJ, Rzeczkowska PA, Herrmann R, Horsthemke B, et al. Parental diabetes: the Akita mouse as a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring. PLoS One 2012; 7: e50210.  Back to cited text no. 122
    
123.
Chang JS. Parental smoking and childhood leukemia. Methods Mol Biol 2009; 472: 103-37.  Back to cited text no. 123
    
124.
Sung TI, Wang JD, Chen PC. Increased risks of infant mortality and of deaths due to congenital malformation in the offspring of male electronics workers. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2009; 85: 119-24.  Back to cited text no. 124
    
125.
Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. On the possible origins of DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Mol Hum Reprod 2010; 16: 3-13.  Back to cited text no. 125
    
126.
Balhorn R, Gledhill BL, Wyrobek AJ. Mouse sperm chromatin proteins: quantitative isolation and partial characterization. Biochemistry 1977; 16: 4074-80.  Back to cited text no. 126
    
127.
Gatewood JM, Cook GR, Balhorn R, Bradbury EM, Schmid CW. Sequence-specific packaging of DNA in human sperm chromatin. Science 1987; 236: 962-4.  Back to cited text no. 127
    
128.
Farthing CR, Ficz G, Ng RK, Chan CF, Andrews S, et al. Global mapping of DNA methylation in mouse promoters reveals epigenetic reprogramming of pluripotency genes. PLoS Genet 2008; 4: e1000116.  Back to cited text no. 128
    
129.
Gaucher J, Reynoird N, Montellier E, Boussouar F, Rousseaux S, et al. From meiosis to postmeiotic events: the secrets of histone disappearance. FEBS J 2010; 277: 599-604.  Back to cited text no. 129
    
130.
Ostermeier GC, Miller D, Huntriss JD, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA. Reproductive biology: delivering spermatozoan RNA to the oocyte. Nature 2004; 429: 154.  Back to cited text no. 130
    
131.
Gapp K, Jawaid A, Sarkies P, Bohacek J, Pelczar P, et al. Implication of sperm RNAs in transgenerational inheritance of the effects of early trauma in mice. Nat Neurosci 2014; 17: 667-9.  Back to cited text no. 131
    
132.
Fernández-Hernando C, Ramírez CM, Goedeke L, Suárez Y. MicroRNAs in metabolic disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013; 33: 178-85.  Back to cited text no. 132
    
133.
He PP, Ouyang XP, Tang YY, Liao L, Wang ZB, et al. MicroRNA-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting lipoprotein lipase gene in human THP-1 macrophages. Biochimie 2014; 106: 81-90.  Back to cited text no. 133
    
134.
Karolina DS, Tavintharan S, Armugam A, Sepramaniam S, Pek SL, et al. Circulating miRNA profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97: E2271-6.  Back to cited text no. 134
    
135.
Quinn SR, O'Neill LA. The role of microRNAs in the control and mechanism of action of IL-10. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2014; 380: 145-55.  Back to cited text no. 135
    
136.
Jodar M, Selvaraju S, Sendler E, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, et al. The presence, role and clinical use of spermatozoal RNAs. Hum Reprod Update 2013; 19: 604-24.  Back to cited text no. 136
    
137.
Sullivan R, Frenette G, Girouard J. Epididymosomes are involved in the acquisition of new sperm proteins during epididymal transit. Asian J Androl 2007; 9: 483-91.  Back to cited text no. 137
    
138.
Belleannée C, Calvo É, Caballero J, Sullivan R. Epididymosomes convey different repertoires of microRNAs throughout the bovine epididymis. Biol Reprod 2013; 89: 30.  Back to cited text no. 138
    
139.
Haidl G, Allam JP, Schuppe HC. Chronic epididymitis: impact on semen parameters and therapeutic options. Andrologia 2008; 40: 92-6.  Back to cited text no. 139
    
140.
Tunc O, Tremellen K. Oxidative DNA damage impairs global sperm DNA methylation in infertile men. J Assist Reprod Genet 2009; 26: 537-44.  Back to cited text no. 140
    
141.
Nanassy L, Carrell DT. Analysis of the methylation pattern of six gene promoters in sperm of men with abnormal protamination. Asian J Androl 2011; 13: 342-6.  Back to cited text no. 141
    
142.
El Hajj N, Zechner U, Schneider E, Tresch A, Gromoll J, et al. Methylation status of imprinted genes and repetitive elements in sperm DNA from infertile males. Sex Dev 2011; 5: 60-9.  Back to cited text no. 142
    
143.
Jenkins TG, Aston KI, Cairns BR, Carrell DT. Paternal aging and associated intraindividual alterations of global sperm 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels. Fertil Steril 2013; 100: 945-51.  Back to cited text no. 143
    
144.
Cadet J, Wagner JR. TET enzymatic oxidation of 5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-formylcytosine. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2014; 764-765: 18-35.  Back to cited text no. 144
    
145.
Salvaing J, Aguirre-Lavin T, Boulesteix C, Lehmann G, Debey P, et al. 5-Methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine spatiotemporal profiles in the mouse zygote. PLoS One 2012; 7: e38156.  Back to cited text no. 145
    
146.
Coulter JB, O'Driscoll CM, Bressler JP. Hydroquinone increases 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation through ten eleven translocation 1 (TET1) 5-methylcytosine dioxygenase. J Biol Chem 2013; 288: 28792-800.  Back to cited text no. 146
    
147.
Strain GW, Zumoff B, Kream J, Strain JJ, Deucher R, et al. Mild Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in obese men. Metabolism 1982; 31: 871-5.  Back to cited text no. 147
    
148.
Magnusdottir EV, Thorsteinsson T, Thorsteinsdottir S, Heimisdottir M, Olafsdottir K. Persistent organochlorines, sedentary occupation, obesity and human male subfertility. Hum Reprod 2005; 20: 208-15.  Back to cited text no. 148
    
149.
Fejes I, Koloszár S, Szöllosi J, Závaczki Z, Pál A. Is semen quality affected by male body fat distribution? Andrologia 2005; 37: 155-9.  Back to cited text no. 149
    
150.
Koloszár S, Fejes I, Závaczki Z, Daru J, Szöllosi J, et al. Effect of body weight on sperm concentration in normozoospermic males. Arch Androl 2005; 51: 299-304.  Back to cited text no. 150
    
151.
Qin DD, Yuan W, Zhou WJ, Cui YQ, Wu JQ, et al. Do reproductive hormones explain the association between body mass index and semen quality? Asian J Androl 2007; 9: 827-34.  Back to cited text no. 151
    
152.
Hammoud AO, Wilde N, Gibson M, Parks A, Carrell DT, et al. Male obesity and alteration in sperm parameters. Fertil Steril 2008; 90: 2222-5.  Back to cited text no. 152
    
153.
Nicopoulou SC, Alexiou M, Michalakis K, Ilias I, Venaki E, et al. Body mass index vis-à-vis total sperm count in attendees of a single andrology clinic. Fertil Steril 2009; 92: 1016-7.  Back to cited text no. 153
    
154.
Stewart TM, Liu DY, Garrett C, Jørgensen N, Brown EH, et al. Associations between andrological measures, hormones and semen quality in fertile Australian men: inverse relationship between obesity and sperm output. Hum Reprod 2009; 24: 1561-8.  Back to cited text no. 154
    
155.
Shayeb AG, Harrild K, Mathers E, Bhattacharya S. An exploration of the association between male body mass index and semen quality. Reprod Biomed Online 2011; 23: 717-23.  Back to cited text no. 155
    
156.
Sekhavat L, Moein MR. The effect of male body mass index on sperm parameters. Aging Male 2010; 13: 155-8.  Back to cited text no. 156
    
157.
Kriegel TM, Heidenreich F, Kettner K, Pursche T, Hoflack B, et al. Identification of diabetes- and obesity-associated proteomic changes in human spermatozoa by difference gel electrophoresis. Reprod Biomed Online 2009; 19: 660-70.  Back to cited text no. 157
    
158.
Hajshafiha M, Ghareaghaji R, Salemi S, Sadegh-Asadi N, Sadeghi-Bazargani H. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples. Int J Gen Med 2013; 6: 447-51.  Back to cited text no. 158
    
159.
Pyttel S, Zschörnig K, Nimptsch A, Paasch U, Schiller J. Enhanced lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin contents are characteristic of spermatozoa from obese men-A MALDI mass spectrometric study. Chem Phys Lipids 2012; 165: 861-5.  Back to cited text no. 159
    
160.
Hammiche F, Laven JS, Twigt JM, Boellaard WP, Steegers EA, et al. Body mass index and central adiposity are associated with sperm quality in men of subfertile couples. Hum Reprod 2012; 27: 2365-72.  Back to cited text no. 160
    
161.
Eskandar M, Al-Asmari M, Babu Chaduvula S, Al-Shahrani M, Al-Sunaidi M, et al. Impact of male obesity on semen quality and serum sex hormones. Adv Urol 2012; 2012: 407601.  Back to cited text no. 161
    
162.
Hadjkacem Loukil L, Hadjkacem H, Bahloul A, Ayadi H. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population. Andrologia 2014. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 162
    


    Figures

  [Table 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Figure 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Potential Adverse Effects of Female and Male Obesity on Fertility: A Narrative Review
Mina Amiri,Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2020; 18(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Palmitic Acid Targets Human Testicular Peritubular Cells and Causes a Pro-Inflammatory Response
Artur Mayerhofer,Kim-Gwendolyn Dietrich,Henryk F. Urbanski,Frank-Michael K÷hn,Ulrich Pickl,Matthias Trottmann,Paul Kievit,Harald Welter
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(8): 2655
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Diabetes and Hypercholesterolemia Impair the Cytological Structure of the Anterior Pituitary Gland
Ahmed MR Abdo,Mohamed E El-Beeh,Sameer H. Qari,Dina A El-badry,Hassan IH El-Sayyad
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2019; 16(3): 649
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Study of Sexual Behavior of Male Rats after Prolonged Consumption of Fats of Different Origin
R. V. Ant?pova,T. Ye. Komisov?,N. P. Smolenko,A. Ye. Sak
Ukra´ns'kij ×urnal medicini, býologý´ ta sportu. 2019; 4(5): 319
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Sulforaphane Protects the Male Reproductive System of Mice from Obesity-Induced Damage: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy
Li Huo,Yu Su,Gaoyang Xu,Lingling Zhai,Jian Zhao
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19): 3759
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 A High Fat Diet during Adolescence in Male Rats Negatively Programs Reproductive and Metabolic Function Which Is Partially Ameliorated by Exercise
Carlos A. Ibß˝ez,Rafaela P. Erthal,Fernanda M. Ogo,Maria N. C. Peres,Henrique R. Vieira,Camila Conejo,Laize P. Tˇfolo,Flßvio A. Francisco,Sandra da Silva Silveira,Ananda Malta,Audrei Pavanello,Isabela P. Martins,Paulo H. O. da Silva,Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra,Gessica D. Gonšalves,Veridiana M. Moreira,Vander S. Alves,ClaudinÚia C. da Silva Franco,Carina Previate,Rodrigo M. Gomes,Renan de Oliveira Venci,Francielle R. S. Dias,James A. Armitage,Elena Zambrano,Paulo C. F. Mathias,Glaura S. A. Fernandes,Kesia Palma-Rigo
Frontiers in Physiology. 2017; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Management of weight loss in obesity-associated male infertility: a spotlight on bariatric surgery
Firass Abiad,Johnny Awwad,Hussein A Abbas,Dina Zebian,Ghina Ghazeeri
Human Fertility. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Seminal Plasma C...
Consequences of ...
Competing Interests
Does adiposity A...
Author Contributions
Male Obesity And...
Male Obesity Imp...
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5037    
    Printed73    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded688    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 7    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]