Year : 2014  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 778-781

Risk factors for hypospadias in China

1 Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China
2 Department of Pathology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Chao-Zhao Liang
Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.131704

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This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and < 18 (OR = 2.95) years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67), used drugs (OR = 1.53) and had an infection (OR = 1.87) during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

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