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Multiple Morphological abnormalities of sperm flagella



Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a specific kind of asthenoteratozoospermia characterized by a combination of aberrant flagellar phenotypes (absent, short, angulated, and irregular flagella). MMAF was proposed in 2014 and has attracted increasing attention; however, it has not been clearly understood. In this review, we elucidate the definition of MMAF from a systematical view, the difference between MMAF and primary ciliary dyskinesia, the knowledge regarding its etiological mechanism and related genetic findings, and the clinical significance of MMAF for ICSI and genetic counseling. Please refer to pages 236–245 for details.

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