Figure 3: Effects of 0.1 nmol l−1 1,25(OH)2D on (a) upward sperm migration and (b) sperm ATP content after incubation for 30 min. All values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The sperm concentration used was 1 × 107 ml−1. The differences between two groups were assessed by paired samples t-test.**P < 0.01, the group treated with 1,25(OH)2D compared with the control group. ATP: adenosine triphosphate.