Figure 3: Seminal vesicle TNF-α staining and western blot. TNF-α expression levels were significantly increased in (a) the operated seminal vesicles compared to (b) the normal control seminal vesicles in the same rat on immunostaining; white arrows show the section with TNF-α staining. Scale bars = 20 μm. (c) The histogram shows the immunohistochemical analysis results. (d) Western blot results show TNF-α expression levels were elevated in the operated seminal vesicles. NC1, NC2, SV1 and SV2 were operated (SV1, SV2) and normal (N1 and N2) seminal vesicle samples in two independent rats marked as 1 and 2, respectively. P < 0.0001, SV group compared to NC group. OD: optical density; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; SV: seminal vesiculitis; NC: normal control.