Figure 2: DEPs in fraction 1 (F1) through fraction 4 (F4). (a) Reactome pathway showing the number of DEPs involved in various pathways in the four fractions. F1 being the most immature and F4 the most mature. (b) Percentage of proteins in the data set that were increasing or decreasing for the different pathways. (c) IPA network showing molecular chaperons that were involved in developmental disorder, posttranslational modifications, and protein folding. (d) IPA network showing proteins involved in molecular transport, protein trafficking, and cell cycle and (e) IPA network showing molecular chaperons involved in cell death and survival, posttranslational modifications, and protein folding. IPA: ingenuity pathway analysis; DEPs: differentially expressed proteins; F1: least mature stage having the lowest density; F2, F3: intermediate stages; F4: includes the most dense and morphologically mature motile spermatozoa. Full names of abbreviated proteins are presented in Supplementary Information.