Figure 4: Vasectomy induces apoptosis and ER stress responses. (a) The expression levels of GRP78 and GADD153 mRNA in vasectomized and control mice was determined by RT-PCR. (b) Quantification of GRP78 and GADD153 mRNA in vasectomized and control mice relative to β-actin. Control, one representative of sham-operated control (note that sham-operated controls at each time point postvasectomy had the same expression level for each HSP110 gene). *Statistically significant difference for vasectomy versus sham operation of the same day (P < 0.05). (c) The testes extracts were analyzed for phosphorylation of JNK and eIF2α, expression of GADD153 and GRP78 by Western blot analysis using antibodies against phospho-JNK, total JNK, phospho-eIF2α, total eIF2α, GADD153, GRP78, and GAPDH. (d) The level of ER stress sensors and downstream signaling components mRNA in the mouse testis after vasectomy was determined by RT-PCR.