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   2014| November-December  | Volume 16 | Issue 6  
    Online since October 30, 2014

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Regulation of cell adhesion in the testis: a new role for p73
Helen E Abud, Gary R Hime
November-December 2014, 16(6):799-800
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133315  PMID:25038182
The dramatic changes that male germ cells in the adult testis undergo in gene expression profile and morphology as they transition from spermatogonial stem cells through to mature spermatozoa is dependent upon their association with Sertoli cells. Sertoli cells are crucial for survival and maturation of male germ cells. Two recent papers, Holembowski et al. [1] and  Inoue et al. [2] have described a surprising role for the p53 family member, p73, in regulation of germ cell-Sertoli cell adhesion.
  2,785 10,071 1
Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling
Yan-Min Ma, Kai-Jie Wu, Qiang Dang, Qi Shi, Yang Gao, Peng Guo, Shan Xu, Xin-Yang Wang, Da-Lin He, Yong-Guang Gong
November-December 2014, 16(6):817-823
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129935  PMID:24994782
Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.
  5,397 555 4
Identification of speckle-type POZ protein somatic mutations in African American prostate cancer
Eric Buckles, Chiping Qian, Andrew Tadros, Sumana Majumdar, Jennifer Cvitanovic, Jovanny Zabaleta, John Estrada, John Wilson, Wanguo Liu
November-December 2014, 16(6):829-832
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132470  PMID:24994784
The speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) is a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). SPOP somatic mutations have been reported in up to 15% of PCa of those of European descent. However, the genetic roles of SPOP in African American (AA)-PCa are currently unknown. We sequenced the SPOP gene to identify somatic mutations in 49 AA prostate tumors and identified three missense mutations (p.Y87C, p.F102S, and p.G111E) in five AA prostate tumors (10%) and one synonymous variant (p.I106I) in one tumor. Intriguingly, all of mutations and variants clustered in exon six, and all of the mutations altered conserved amino acids. Moreover, two mutations (p.F102S and p.G111E) have only been identified in AA-PCa to date. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed a lower level of SPOP expression in tumors carrying SPOP mutations than their matched normal prostate tissues. In addition, SPOP mutations and novel variants were detected in 5 of 27 aggressive PCa and one of 22 less aggressive PCa (P < 0.05). Further studies with increased sample size are needed to validate the clinicopathological significance of these SPOP mutations in AA-PCa.
  5,133 304 3
Unraveling the intricacies of mammalian fertilization
Satish K Gupta
November-December 2014, 16(6):801-802
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133325  PMID:25038185
It is imperative to understand the molecular basis of various steps involved during fertilization. In the manuscript by Bianchi et al. [1] a novel protein, Juno on egg membrane (oolemma) has been characterized that binds to sperm specific protein, Izumo-1. Monoclonal antibodies against Juno inhibited in vitro fertilization. Juno knock-out female mice failed to deliver litters on mating. It is rapidly shed from oolemma after fertilization, suggesting its role in preventing polyspermy. Taken together these studies will help in our understanding of sperm-egg recognition mechanisms and also facilitate development of new fertility treatment regimens and novel contraceptives.
  2,372 2,721 2
The effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for poor semen quality in infertile males: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Ui Min Jerng, Jun-Young Jo, Seunghoon Lee, Jin-Moo Lee, Ohmin Kwon
November-December 2014, 16(6):884-891
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129130  PMID:25038176
The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for poor semen quality in infertile men. We searched for relevant trials registered up to May 2013 in 14 databases. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture, with or without additional treatment, against placebo, sham, no treatment, or the same additional treatment. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, risk of bias and reporting quality appraisal. Risk of bias and reporting quality were appraised by the Cochrane risk of bias tool, the consolidated standards of reporting trials and Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture. The outcomes were sperm motility, sperm concentration, pregnancy rate, and adverse events. Pregnancy was defined as a positive pregnancy test. Four RCTs met the eligibility criteria. Acupuncture increased the percentage of sperm with rapid progression (mean difference - 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.38-8.32, P< 0.00001) and sperm concentration (mean difference - 6.42, 95% CI: 4.91-7.92, P< 0.00001), but these two outcomes were substantially heterogeneous among the studies (I 2 = 72% and 58%, respectively). No differences in pregnancy rate were found between acupuncture and control groups (odds ratio 1.60, 95% CI: 0.70-3.69, P= 0.27, I 2 = 0%). No participants experienced adverse events. The current evidence showing that acupuncture might improve poor semen quality is insufficient because of the small number of studies, inadequacy of procedures and/or insufficient information for semen analysis, high levels of heterogeneity, high risk of bias, and poor quality of reporting. Further large, well-designed RCTs are required.
  3,776 572 9
A new potential risk factor in patients with erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: folate deficiency
Wen-Jie Yan, Nan Yu, Tai-Lang Yin, Yu-Jie Zou, Jing Yang
November-December 2014, 16(6):902-906
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.135981  PMID:25080932
We investigated serum folic acid (FA) levels in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Fasting serum samples were obtained from 42 patients with ED, 36 with PE, 25 ED patients with PE, and 30 healthy men; the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured during a 4 weeks baseline period. Levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone), homocysteine (Hcys), and FA were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. The sexual functions of PE patients and normal control men were evaluated using the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The abridged International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used to gauge erectile quality for ED patients and for normal controls. Serum FA concentrations were lower in ED (7.61 ± 3.97 ng ml -1), PE (9.37 ± 3.40 ng ml -1), and ED/PE (8.84 ± 4.28 ng ml -1 ) patients than in healthy men (12.23 ± 5.76 ng ml -1 , P < 0.05). No significant differences in sex hormone levels were found between patients with sexual dysfunction and healthy controls (P > 0.05). There were positive correlations between serum FA concentrations and CIPE scores (r = 0.530, P < 0.01), IIEF-5 scores (r = 0.589, P < 0.01), and IELT (r = 0.445, P < 0.01); negative correlations with Hcys concentrations (r = −0.487, P < 0.01) were found in all participants. These findings showed a strong relationship between serum FA levels and sexual dysfunction, possibly due to an effect of FA on the metabolism of nitric oxide, Hcys, and 5-hydroxytryptamine.
  3,642 473 11
Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation
Eun Hwa Park, Do Rim Kim, Ha Young Kim, Seong Kyu Park, Mun Seog Chang
November-December 2014, 16(6):845-851
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129129  PMID:24969054
The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.
  3,181 442 9
Awareness of and attitudes towards infertility and its treatment: a cross-sectional survey of men in a United States primary care population
Robert S Gerhard, Chad WM Ritenour, Michael Goodman, Dipak Vashi, Wayland Hsiao
November-December 2014, 16(6):858-863
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132782  PMID:24994785
Previous studies have described racial and socioeconomic disparities in the treatment of infertility. Patient factors such as attitudes and awareness may be contributing factors. Since primary care is often the setting that serves as an entry into other areas of medicine, we sought to evaluate men's attitudes and awareness of male infertility in the primary care setting. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional survey of men's attitudes toward men's health issues in 210 men from two primary care clinic waiting rooms in Atlanta, Georgia. The survey was self-administered with closed-ended question items and was approximately 20 min in length. Of the 310 men approached, 210 agreed to participate and returned completed surveys. Overall, 52% of men said they were "very" or "somewhat" familiar with infertility and 25% were familiar with treatments for infertility. Some men had heard of surgery (21%) and medication (35%) as treatments for male infertility. Awareness and familiarity with the condition was greater in high socioeconomic status men (i.e. college graduates or those with income >$100 k per year) but did not differ by race on multivariate analysis. Attitudes toward infertility varied by race with non-Caucasian men being more likely to indicate that infertility is a serious condition, to be concerned about infertility, and to believe it decreases a man's quality-of-life. Therefore, a lack of awareness, but not negative attitudes, may contribute to previously-described disparities in the treatment of infertility.
  3,072 476 6
Further analysis of PREVAIL: Enzalutamide use in chemotherapy-naïve men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
Jeanny B Aragon-Ching
November-December 2014, 16(6):803-804
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.135129  PMID:25080931
PREVAIL was a phase III multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled chemotherapy-naïve men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), which showed remarkable improvement in co-primary endpoints with an overall 81% reduction in the risk of radiographic progression, as well as 29% reduction in the risk of death in favor of the enzalutamide arm over placebo. All secondary endpoints including time to subsequent chemotherapy initiation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression were in favor of the enzalutamide arm. The results of PREVAIL shows the utility of enzalutamide that would likely soon expand the indication to asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic men with mCRPC not previously treated with chemotherapy.
  2,465 1,034 1
Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and the relationships with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters
Zaida Sarrate, Francesca Vidal, Joan Blanco
November-December 2014, 16(6):838-844
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.135126  PMID:25080930
The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants.
  2,584 423 5
HoLEP does not affect the overall sexual function of BPH patients: a prospective study
Sung Han Kim, Hyung-Kook Yang, Hahn-Ey Lee, Jae-Seung Paick, Seung-June Oh
November-December 2014, 16(6):873-877
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132469  PMID:25038179
We aimed to prospectively evaluate the influence of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) on the overall postoperative sexual function of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and to explore the relationship between sexual function and LUTS. From January 2010 to December 2011, sixty sexually active consecutive patients with BPH who underwent HoLEP were prospectively enrolled in the study. All patients filled out the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) for evaluation of their overall sexual function and the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) for pre- and post-operative 6 months evaluation of their voiding symptoms. The LUTS and sexual function changes were statistically analyzed. The preoperative and 6 months postoperative status of the patients was compared using uroflowmetry and IPSS questionnaires. The analysis revealed significant improvements following HoLEP. Among the sub-domains of the MSHQ, postoperative sexual function, including erection, ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, anxiety or sexual desire, did not significantly change after HoLEP (P > 0.05), whereas satisfaction scores decreased slightly due to retrograde ejaculation in 38 patients (63.3%). Sexual satisfaction improved significantly and was correlated with the improvements of all LUTS and the quality-of-life (QoL) domains in IPSS after surgery (QoL; relative risk [RR]: −0.293; total symptoms, RR: −0.411; P < 0.05). The nocturia score was associated with the erectile function score (odds ratio 0.318, P = 0.029). The change in ejaculatory scores did not show significant association with IPSS scores. HoLEP did not influence overall sexual function, including erectile function. In addition, sexual satisfaction improved in proportion with the improvement of LUTS.
  2,591 403 11
A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield
Sinan Ozkavukcu, Ebru Ibis, Sule Kizil, Suheyla Isbacar, Kaan Aydos
November-December 2014, 16(6):852-857
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132468  PMID:25038178
Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells.
  2,420 405 9
Physiological normal levels of androgen inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro
Weitao Song, Mohit Khera
November-December 2014, 16(6):864-868
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129132  PMID:24923459
For more than 70 years, it has been believed that a severe reduction of serum androgen levels caused regression of prostate cancer (PCa) and that increasing androgen levels enhanced growth of PCa. However, numerous recent studies have questioned this traditional belief. In our study, LNCaP and MDA PCa 2b PCa cells were treated with various levels of androgens for 10 or 20 days, and the cell growth was measured with crystal violet mitogenic assay. The results indicated that the effect of androgens on the proliferation of PCa cells occurs in a biphasic pattern, with the androgen levels promoting optimal cell growth at approximately 0.23 ng ml−1 for LNCaP cells and between 1 and 2 ng ml−1 for MDA PCa 2b cells. Both of the optimal androgen levels are within the adult men's physiological low range (<2.4 ng ml−1 ). At lower concentrations than the optimal androgen level, increasing androgen concentration promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. However, at the higher concentrations, increasing androgen concentration resulted in a dose-dependent proliferative inhibition. We conclude that physiologically normal levels of androgen inhibit the proliferation of PCa cells in vitro. However, at very low levels androgens are essential for initial growth of PCa cells.
  2,387 409 19
Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases
Kwang Hyun Kim, Sey Kiat Lim, Kyo Chul Koo, Woong Kyu Han, Sung Joon Hong, Koon Ho Rha
November-December 2014, 16(6):824-828
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133319  PMID:25038184
In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11-51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND.
  2,241 362 6
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in postnatal development of rat testis: gene expression, localization and regulation by luteinizing hormone and androgens
Hong-Yu Zhou, Xin-Xin Chen, Han Lin, Ai-Li Fei, Ren-Shan Ge
November-December 2014, 16(6):811-816
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132471  PMID:25038180
11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2) are expressed in rat testis, where they regulate the local concentrations of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of 11β-HSD in rat testis during postnatal development, and the regulation of these genes by luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens. mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in testes collected from rats at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14, 21, 35, and 90, and from rats treated with LH, 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and testosterone at PND 21 and PND 90. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the localization of the 11β-HSD in rat testis at PND 7, 14, and 90. We found that 11β-HSD1 expression was restricted to the interstitial areas, and that its levels increased during rat testis development. In contrast, whereas 11β-HSD2 was expressed in both the interstitial areas and seminiferous tubules at PND 7, it was present only in the interstitial areas at PND 90, and its levels declined during testicular development. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 mRNA was induced by LH in both the PND 21 and 90 testes and by MENT at PND 21, whereas 11β-HSD2 mRNA was induced by testosterone and MENT in the PND 21 testis and by LH in the PND 90 testis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 genes have distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation during postnatal development of the rat testis.
  2,212 384 7
Multiple advanced surgical techniques to treat acquired seminal duct obstruction
Hong-Tao Jiang, Qian Yuan, Yu Liu, Zeng-Qin Liu, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Ke-Feng Xiao, Jiang-Gen Yang
November-December 2014, 16(6):912-916
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.139256  PMID:25337841
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of multiple advanced surgical treatments (i.e. microsurgery, laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic surgery) for acquired obstructive azoospermia. We analyzed the surgical outcomes of 51 patients with suspected acquired obstructive azoospermia consecutively who enrolled at our center between January 2009 and May 2013. Modified vasoepididymostomy, laparoscopically assisted vasovasostomy and transurethral incision of the ejaculatory duct with holmium laser were chosen and performed based on the different obstruction sites. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 22 months (range: 9 months to 52 months). Semen analyses were initiated at four postoperative weeks, followed by trimonthly (months 3, 6, 9 and 12) semen analyses, until no sperm was found at 12 months or until pregnancy was achieved. Patency was defined as >10,000 sperm ml−1 of semen. The obstruction sites, postoperative patency and natural pregnancy rate were recorded. Of 51 patients, 47 underwent bilateral or unilateral surgical reconstruction; the other four patients were unable to be treated with surgical reconstruction because of pelvic vas or intratesticular tubules obstruction. The reconstruction rate was 92.2% (47/51), and the patency rate and natural pregnancy rate were 89.4% (42/47) and 38.1% (16/42), respectively. No severe complications were observed. Using multiple advanced surgical techniques, more extensive range of seminal duct obstruction was accessible and correctable; thus, a favorable patency and pregnancy rate can be achieved.
  2,168 385 2
The performance of transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of seminal vesicle defects: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging
Xu Chen, Hua Wang, Rong-Pei Wu, Hui Liang, Xiao-Peng Mao, Cheng-Qiang Mao, Hong-Zhang Zhu, Shao-Peng Qiu, Dao-Hu Wang
November-December 2014, 16(6):907-911
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.142768  PMID:25337847
Obstructive azoospermia (OA) is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) has been used to diagnose OA for many years. From 2009 to 2013, we evaluated a prospective cohort of 1249 patients with suspected OA using TRUS. It was found that dilation of the ejaculatory duct (ED) (29.9%, 374/1249) was the most common cause of OA, followed by seminal vesicle (SV) abnormalities (28.5%, 356/1249). A total of 237 patients were diagnosed with congenital defects (agenesis and/or hypoplasia) of the SV, constituting more than half of the cases of SV disease in OA (19.0%, 237/1249). In contrast to ED, congenital defects of the SV could not be corrected with surgical treatment. Therefore, it is meaningful to compare TRUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate diagnosis of SV defects. Among our patients, 30 with agenesis or/and hypoplasia of the SV on TRUS were further evaluated using pelvic MRI within 2 years, with the objective of verifying the TRUS results. The concordance rate for diagnosing congenital defects of the SV was 73.3% (22/30). We concluded that TRUS is a reliable and convenient method for diagnosing agenesis or hypoplasia of the SV in OA patients with a high concordance with MRI while MRI is useful in patients with inconclusive TRUS findings.
  2,170 379 -
Significance of preoperatively observed detrusor overactivity as a predictor of continence status early after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy
Akihiro Yanagiuchi, Hideaki Miyake, Kazushi Tanaka, Masato Fujisawa
November-December 2014, 16(6):869-872
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132784  PMID:25038181
Several recent studies have reported the involvement of bladder dysfunction in the delayed recovery of urinary continence following radical prostatectomy (RP). The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of detrusor overactivity (DO) as a predictor of the early continence status following robot-assisted RP (RARP). This study included 84 consecutive patients with prostate cancer undergoing RARP. Urodynamic studies, including filling cystometry, pressure flow study, electromyogram of the external urethral sphincter and urethral pressure profile, were performed in these patients before surgery. Urinary continence was defined as the use of either no or one pad per day as a precaution only. DO was preoperatively observed in 30 patients (35.7%), and 55 (65.5%) and 34 (40.5%) were judged to be incontinent 1 and 3 months after RARP, respectively. At both 1 and 3 months after RARP, the incidences of incontinence in patients with DO were significantly higher than in those without DO. Of several demographic and urodynamic parameters, univariate analyses identified DO and maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) as significant predictors of the continence status at both 1 and 3 months after RARP. Furthermore, DO and MUCP appeared to be independently associated with the continence at both 1 and 3 months after RARP on multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that preoperatively observed DO could be a significant predictor of urinary incontinence early after RARP; therefore, it is recommended to perform urodynamic studies for patients who are scheduled to undergo RARP in order to comprehensively evaluate their preoperative vesicourethral functions.
  2,024 328 14
Prevention of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer
Izak Faiena, Neal Patel, Allen D Seftel
November-December 2014, 16(6):805-806
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133327  PMID:25130584
With increasing scrutiny of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment, much attention has been given to the morbidity caused by radical prostatectomy (RP) and/or radiotherapy (RT). One of the most common side-effects of either treatment is erectile dysfunction (ED). [1] Approximately, 40% of patients will experience ED after RT for PCa. The post-RT ED causes significant patient dissatisfaction with cancer treatment as well as decrease in patient and partner psychosocial function. [2] To address this issue in patients undergoing RT, Pisansky et al. [3] conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a phosphodiesterase enzyme-5 inhibitor (PDE5i), tadalafil, as a preventive measure for patients undergoing RT for PCa and found no difference in erectile function between the control and treatment groups.
  1,919 409 1
Genetic variations of the ADIPOQgene and risk of prostate cancer in Chinese Han men
Cheng-Yuan Gu, Qiao-Xin Li, Yao Zhu, Meng-Yun Wang, Ting-Yan Shi, Ya-Yun Yang, Jiu-Cun Wang, Li Jin, Qing-Yi Wei, Ding-Wei Ye
November-December 2014, 16(6):878-883
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129939  PMID:25038177
Adiponectin secreted by adipose tissue has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in ADIPOQ are thought to influence the activity of adiponectin, thus relating to cancer occurrence. In this hospital-based case-control study of 917 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 1036 cancer-free controls, we evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ with risk of PCa and adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. Variants of ADIPOQ were genotyped by Taqman polymerase chain reaction method. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a subset of cases and controls. We found that the ADIPOQ rs3774262 variant AA genotype was associated with both decreased PCa risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.48-0.92] and increased plasma adiponectin levels (P = 0.036 and 0.043), with significant difference by tumor grade, clinical stage, and aggressiveness. A significant interaction between ADIPOQ rs3774262 and body mass index was observed in modifying the risk of PCa (P = 6.7 × 10−3 ). ADIPOQ rs266729 and rs182052 were not related to PCa risk or plasma adiponectin levels. Our data support that ADIPOQ rs3774262 may affect PCa risk in combination with plasma adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. It may contribute to the molecular basis for the association between obesity and PCa.
  1,996 328 6
Risk prediction models for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy using prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score
Xin-Hai Hu, Henning Cammann, Hellmuth-A Meyer, Klaus Jung, Hong-Biao Lu, Natalia Leva, Ahmed Magheli, Carsten Stephan, Jonas Busch
November-December 2014, 16(6):897-901
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129940  PMID:25130472
Many computer models for predicting the risk of prostate cancer have been developed including for prediction of biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, models for individual BCR free probability at individual time-points after a BCR free period are rare. Follow-up data from 1656 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) were used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict BCR and to compare it with a logistic regression (LR) model using clinical and pathologic parameters, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), margin status (R0/1), pathological stage (pT), and Gleason Score (GS). For individual BCR prediction at any given time after operation, additional ANN, and LR models were calculated every 6 months for up to 7.5 years of follow-up. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the ANN (0.754) and LR models (0.755) calculated immediately following LRP, were larger than that for GS (AUC: 0.715; P = 0.0015 and 0.001), pT or PSA (AUC: 0.619; P always <0.0001) alone. The GS predicted the BCR better than PSA (P = 0.0001), but there was no difference between the ANN and LR models (P = 0.39). Our ANN and LR models predicted individual BCR risk from radical prostatectomy for up to 10 years postoperative. ANN and LR models equally and significantly improved the prediction of BCR compared with PSA and GS alone. When the GS and ANN output values are combined, a more accurate BCR prediction is possible, especially in high-risk patients with GS ≥7.
  2,003 320 4
Enzalutamide in chemo-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer: effective for most but not for all
Benjamin L Maughan, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
November-December 2014, 16(6):807-808
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.137680  PMID:25155108
Continued research in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has allowed for a clearer understanding of this disease entity and further treatment advances. In a study recently published by Beer et al. [1] in the New England Journal of Medicine, another advance to treatment was demonstrated for the androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitor, enzalutamide, in patients with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic CRPC. Although a large majority of patients responded favorably to enzalutamide in the prechemotherapy setting, a small but significant proportion of patients demonstrated no meaningful benefit to this agent. This highlights an important concept in the understanding of this disease: inherent and acquired resistance to AR-targeting therapies.
  1,916 372 3
Impact of penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil on recovery of erectile function in Japanese men following nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy
Yuzo Nakano, Hideaki Miyake, Koji Chiba, Masato Fujisawa
November-December 2014, 16(6):892-896
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.126377  PMID:24994781
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a major complication after radical prostatectomy (RP); however, debate continues regarding the efficacy of penile rehabilitation in the recovery of the postoperative erectile function (EF). This study included a total of 103 consecutive sexually active Japanese men with localized prostate cancer undergoing nerve-sparing RP, and analyzed the postoperative EF, focusing on the significance of penile rehabilitation. In this series, 24 and 79 patients underwent bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing RPs, respectively, and 10 or 20 mg of vardenafil was administered to 35 patients at least once weekly, who agreed to undergo penile rehabilitation. Twelve months after RP, 48 (46.6%) of the 103 patients were judged to have recovered EF sufficient for sexual intercourse without any assistance. The proportion of patients who recovered EF in those undergoing penile rehabilitation (60.0%) was significantly greater than that in those without penile rehabilitation (38.2%). Of several parameters examined, the preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) score and nerve-sparing procedure were significantly associated with the postoperative EF recovery rates in patients with and without management by penile rehabilitation, respectively. Furthermore, univariate analysis identified the preoperative IIEF-5 score, nerve-sparing procedure and penile rehabilitation as significant predictors of EF recovery, among which the preoperative IIEF-5 score and nerve-sparing procedure appeared to be independently associated with EF recovery. Considering these findings, despite the lack of independent significance, penile rehabilitation with low-dose vardenafil could exert a beneficial effect on EF recovery in Japanese men following nerve-sparing RP.
  1,912 354 5
Triorchidism: a rare genital abnormality
Orcun Celik, Salih Budak, Ozgur Cakmak, Huseyin Tarhan, Okan Nabi Yalbuzdag, Aziz Peker, Yusuf Ozlem Ilbey
November-December 2014, 16(6):923-924
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133317  PMID:24969062
  2,032 225 -
Decreasing trend in prostate cancer with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels detected at first prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Japan
Yasuhide Kitagawa, Kazuaki Machioka, Hiroshi Yaegashi, Kazufumi Nakashima, Mitsuo Ofude, Kouji Izumi, Satoru Ueno, Yoshifumi Kadono, Hiroyuki Konaka, Atsushi Mizokami, Mikio Namiki
November-December 2014, 16(6):833-837
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.135122  PMID:25219906
To clarify the recent trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) distribution in men in Japan, we analyzed the PSA distributions of men undergoing PSA-based population screening. We summarized the annual individual data of PSA-based population screening in Kanazawa, Japan, from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed baseline serum PSA values of the participants at the first population screening. Serum PSA distributions were estimated in all participants and those excluding prostate cancer patients according to age. From 2000 to 2011, 19 620 men participated aged 54-69 years old in this screening program. Mean baseline serum PSA level of all participants at the first screening was 2.64 ng ml−1 in 2000, and gradually decreased to approximately 1.30 ng ml−1 in 2006. That of participants excluding prostate cancer patients was 1.46 ng ml−1 in 2000, and there was no remarkable change during the study period. The 95 th percentiles in the participants excluding prostate cancer patients detected at the first population screening of men aged 54-59, 60-64, and 65-69 years old were 2.90, 3.60, and 4.50 ng ml−1 , respectively. After the commencement of population screening, the proportion of prostate cancer patients with high serum PSA levels decreased. However, there were no changes in serum PSA levels in men without prostate cancer. Age-specific PSA reference level of men without prostate cancer in Japan was similar to that in China and Korea.
  1,929 312 3
Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?
Louis J Gooren
November-December 2014, 16(6):809-810
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133972  PMID:25038187
  1,962 267 2
Immunodetection of Tau microtubule-associated protein in human sperm and testis
Julien Sigala, Fanny Jumeau, Marie-Laure Caillet-Boudin, Nicolas Sergeant, Caroline Ballot, Jean-Marc Rigot, François Marcelli, Meryem Tardivel, Luc Buée, Valérie Mitchell
November-December 2014, 16(6):927-928
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.136446  PMID:25219911
  1,642 291 3
Scientific publications in andrology journals from Chinese authors in various parts of East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature
Wei Zhang, Teng-Yun Wu, Chuan-Liang Xu, Chun-Lei Jiang, Tie Zhou, Ying-Hao Sun
November-December 2014, 16(6):934-936
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.136448  PMID:25155107
  1,682 250 1
Human papillomavirus sperm infection: a possible risk factor for male infertility
Li Zhang, Zong-Yao Hao, Xian-Sheng Zhang, Chao-Zhao Liang
November-December 2014, 16(6):929-930
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.137682  PMID:25219915
  1,410 317 -
Circumcision standards: can we improve further?
Roland Donat
November-December 2014, 16(6):917-917
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133328  PMID:25130585
  1,397 267 -
Is number of chiasmata an etiological factor of male infertility?
Maciej Kurpisz, Marta Olszewska
November-December 2014, 16(6):920-920
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.136442  PMID:25155106
  1,390 248 1
Glucocorticoid metabolism in testicular tissue: a key to fertility?
Christine Aurich
November-December 2014, 16(6):919-919
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132467  PMID:25130581
  1,367 242 -
Ultrastructural changes and asthenozoospermia in murine spermatozoa lacking the ribosomal protein L29/HIP gene
Rolands G Aravindan, Catherine B Kirn-Safran, Michelle A Smith, Patricia A Martin-DeLeon
November-December 2014, 16(6):925-926
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.133318  PMID:25155104
  1,325 267 2
Association of PIWIL4 genetic variants with germ cell maturation arrest in infertile Spanish men
Xavi Munoz, Mercedes Navarro, Ana Mata, Lluís Bassas, Sara Larriba
November-December 2014, 16(6):931-933
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.131069  PMID:24969058
  1,365 181 4
Re: Is number of chiasmata an etiological factor of male infertility?
Zaida Sarrate, Francesca Vidal, Joan Blanco
November-December 2014, 16(6):921-921
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.137681  PMID:25219914
  1,292 239 -
Complex and time-consuming laboratory modifications are not always necessary to improve outcome
Thomas Freour
November-December 2014, 16(6):918-918
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.132473  PMID:25130582
  1,276 234 -
Findings from a prostate cancer screening program in a Japanese population
Weranja K B Ranasinghe, Raj Persad
November-December 2014, 16(6):922-922
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.135128  PMID:25219907
  1,233 195 -