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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-February 2018
Volume 20 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-106

Online since Tuesday, December 19, 2017

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INVITED REVIEW  

Use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in men with high sperm DNA fragmentation: a SWOT analysis p. 1
Sandro C Esteves, Matheus Roque, Nicolás Garrido
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_7_17  PMID:28440264
Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Risk of complications and urinary incontinence following cytoreductive prostatectomy: a multi-institutional study p. 9
Dae Keun Kim, Jaspreet Singh Parihar, Young Suk Kwon, Sinae Kim, Brian Shinder, Nara Lee, Nicholas Farber, Thomas Ahlering, Douglas Skarecky, Bertram Yuh, Nora Ruel, Wun-Jae Kim, Koon Ho Rha, Isaac Yi Kim
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.196852  PMID:28440262
Emerging evidence has suggested that cytoreductive prostatectomy (CRP) allows superior oncologic control when compared to current standard of care androgen deprivation therapy alone. However, the safety and benefit of cytoreduction in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) has not been proven. Therefore, we evaluated the incidence of complications following CRP in men newly diagnosed with mPCa. A total of 68 patients who underwent CRP from 2006 to 2014 at four tertiary surgical centers were compared to 598 men who underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Urinary incontinence was defined as the use of any pad. CRP had longer operative times (200 min vs 140 min, P < 0.0001) and higher estimated blood loss (250 ml vs 125 ml, P < 0.0001) compared to the control group. However, both overall (8.82% vs 5.85%) and major complication rates (4.41% vs 2.17%) were comparable between the two groups. Importantly, urinary incontinence rate at 1-year after surgery was significantly higher in the CRP group (57.4% vs 90.8%, P < 0.0001). Univariate logistic analysis showed that the estimated blood loss was the only independent predictor of perioperative complications both in the unadjusted model (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.37; P = 0.025) and surgery type-adjusted model (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.36; P = 0.034). In conclusion, CRP is more challenging than radical prostatectomy and associated with a notably higher incidence of urinary incontinence. Nevertheless, CRP is a technically feasible and safe surgery for selecting PCa patients who present with node-positive or bony metastasis when performed by experienced surgeons. A prospective, multi-institutional clinical trial is currently underway to verify this concept.
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The role of the serum testosterone levels as a predictor of prostate cancer in patients with atypical small acinar proliferation at the first prostate biopsy p. 15
Lucio Dell'Atti, Andrea B Galosi
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_17_17  PMID:28695864
The current literature does not support the usefulness of clinical markers on predicting which patients with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) are more likely to progress to prostate cancer (PCa). Androgens have long been considered to be the potential risk factors for PCa. However, the role of testosterone is controversial. The present study aims to analyze the relationship between serum testosterone (TS) levels and the diagnosis of PCa after a first prostate biopsy in patients affected by ASAP. This retrospective study included 143 patients diagnosed with ASAP in an initial transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy for suspicious PCa according to the European Association of Urology guidelines. Their TS levels, age, PSA, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, and prostate biopsy Gleason score (GS) were collected retrospectively for statistical analysis. All patients included in the study had a second biopsy and were suitable for further analysis. Re-biopsy was carried out 3-6 months after the first diagnosis of ASAP. Low and normal TS groups were composed of 29 (20.3%) and 114 (79.7%) patients, respectively. The diagnosis of the second biopsy was ASAP in 25.2% and PCa in 36.4% of patients. The comparison between patients with PCa and those with negative or an ASAP result in the second biopsy reported that men with cancer had significantly higher levels of TS (P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant association between GS postbiopsy and TS (P = 0.324). Our experience demonstrated that eugonadal patients may be a clinical risk factor for the diagnosis of PCa on re-biopsy after ASAP diagnosis than hypogonadal.
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Validity of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with International Index of Erectile Function-15 in Chinese men with evidence-based-defined premature ejaculation p. 19
Dong-Dong Tang, Chao Li, Dang-Wei Peng, Xian-Sheng Zhang
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_9_17  PMID:28361812
The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) is a brief diagnostic measure to assess premature ejaculation (PE). However, there is insufficient evidence regarding its validity in the new evidence-based-defined PE. This study was performed to evaluate the validity of PEDT and its association with IIEF-15 in different types of evidence-based-defined PE. From June 2015 to January 2016, a total of 260 men complaining of PE and defined as lifelong PE (LPE)/acquired PE (APE) according to the evidence-based definition from Andrology Clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, along with 104 male healthy controls without PE from a medical examination center, were enrolled in this study. All individuals completed questionnaires including demographics, medical and sexual history, as well as PEDT and IIEF-15. After statistical analysis, it was found that men with PE reported higher PEDT scores (14.28 ± 3.05) and lower IIEF-15 (41.26 ± 8.20) than men without PE (PEDT: 5.32 ± 3.42, IIEF-15: 52.66 ± 6.86, P < 0.001 for both). It was suggested that a score of ≥9 indicated PE in both LPE and APE by sensitivity and specificity analyses (sensitivity: 0.875, 0.913; specificity: 0.865, 0.865, respectively). In addition, IIEF-15 were higher in men with LPE (42.64 ± 8.11) than APE (39.43 ± 7.84, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with LPE (adjust r = −0.225, P < 0.001) and APE (adjust r = −0.378, P < 0.001). In this study, we concluded that PEDT was valid in the diagnosis of evidenced-based-defined PE. Furthermore, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with different types of PE.
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Aldosterone induces inflammatory cytokines in penile corpus cavernosum by activating the NF-κB pathway p. 24
Fei Wu, Zu-Quan Xiong, Shan-Hua Mao, Ji-Meng Hu, Jian-Qing Wang, Hao-Wen Jiang, Qiang Ding
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_8_17  PMID:28382926
Emerging evidence indicates that aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) are associated with the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, freshly isolated penile corpus cavernosum tissue from rats was treated with aldosterone, with or without MRs inhibitors. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B (NF-κB) activity was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR, luciferase assay, and immunoblot. The results demonstrated that mRNA levels of the NF-κB target genes, including inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκB-α), NF-κB1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were higher after aldosterone treatment. Accordingly, phosphorylation of p65/RelA, IκB-α, and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-β was markedly increased by aldosterone. Furthermore, knockdown of MRs prevented activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway by aldosterone. Consistent with this finding, ectopic overexpression of MRs enhanced the transcriptional activation of NF-κB by aldosterone. More importantly, the MRs antagonist, spironolactone blocked aldosterone-mediated activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, aldosterone has an inflammatory effect in the corpus cavernosum penis, inducing NF-κB activation via an MRs-dependent pathway, which may be prevented by selective MRs antagonists. These data reveal the possible role of aldosterone in erectile dysfunction as well as its potential as a novel pharmacologic target for treatment.
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Predictive value of FSH, testicular volume, and histopathological findings for the sperm retrieval rate of microdissection TESE in nonobstructive azoospermia: a meta-analysis p. 30
Hao Li, Li-Ping Chen, Jun Yang, Ming-Chao Li, Rui-Bao Chen, Ru-Zhu Lan, Shao-Gang Wang, Ji-Hong Liu, Tao Wang
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_5_17  PMID:28361811
We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of different parameters in the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). All relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO. We chose three parameters to perform the meta-analysis: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testicular volume, and testicular histopathological findings which included three patterns: hypospermatogenesis (HS), maturation arrest (MA), and Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS). If there was a threshold effect, only the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUSROC) was calculated. Otherwise, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were also calculated. Twenty-one articles were included in our study finally. There was a threshold effect among studies investigating FSH and SCOS. The AUSROCs of FSH, testicular volume, HS, MA, and SCOS were 0.6119, 0.6389, 0.6758, 0.5535, and 0.2763, respectively. The DORs of testicular volume, HS, and MA were 1.98, 16.49, and 1.26, respectively. The sensitivities of them were 0.80, 0.30, and 0.27, while the specificities of them were 0.35, 0.98, and 0.76, respectively. The PLRs of them were 1.49, 10.63, and 1.15, respectively. And NLRs were 0.73, 0.72, and 0.95, respectively. All the investigated factors in our study had limited predictive value. However, the histopathological findings were helpful to some extent. Most patients with HS could get sperm by microdissection TESE.
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Antiarrhythmic drug usage and prostate cancer: a population-based cohort study p. 37
Li-Ting Kao, Chung-Chien Huang, Herng-Ching Lin, Chao-Yuan Huang
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_26_17  PMID:28857052
Even though the relationship between antiarrhythmic drug usage and subsequent prostate cancer (PCa) risk has recently been highlighted, relevant findings in the previous literature are still inconsistent. In addition, very few studies have attempted to investigate the association between sodium channel blockers or potassium channel blockers for arrhythmia and the subsequent PCa risk. Therefore, this cohort study aimed to find the relationship between antiarrhythmic drug usage and the subsequent PCa risk using a population-based dataset. The data used in this study were derived from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, Taiwan, China. We respectively identified 9988 sodium channel blocker users, 3663 potassium channel blocker users, 65 966 beta-blocker users, 23 366 calcium channel blockers users, and 7031 digoxin users as the study cohorts. The matched comparison cohorts (one comparison subject for each antiarrhythmic drug user) were selected from the same dataset. Each patient was tracked for a 5-year period to define those who were subsequently diagnosed with PCa. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and age, Cox proportional hazard regressions found that the hazard ratio (HR) of subsequent PCa for sodium channel blocker users was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-1.50), for potassium channel blocker users was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59-1.34), for beta-blocker users was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96-1.22), for calcium channel blocker users was 1.14 (95% CI: 0.95-1.36), and for digoxin users was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.67-1.18), compared to their matched nonusers. We concluded that there were no statistical associations between different types of antiarrhythmic drug usage and subsequent PCa risk.
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Risk factors and the prognosis of sexual dysfunction in male patients with pituitary adenomas: a multivariate analysis p. 43
Wen-Jian-Long Zhou, Shun-Chang Ma, Min Zhao, Chang Liu, Xiu-Dong Guan, Zhao-Shi Bao, Gui-Jun Jia, Wang Jia
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_18_17  PMID:28816201
The impact of sexual dysfunction (SD) is distressing to many male patients with pituitary adenomas which affect both physical and psychological health. The research explored to identify risk factors affecting sexual function and the prognosis of male patients with pituitary adenomas. Two hundred and fifty-four male patients, who aged between 18 and 60 (mean ± s.d.: 44.16 ± 10.14) years and diagnosed with pituitary adenomas, were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (62.6%) complained of SD prior to surgery. The mean International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) in patients with giant adenomas was 16.13 ± 2.51, much smaller than those with microadenomas or macroadenomas (P < 0.05). All the patients showed significant improvement in terms of erectile dysfunction (ED) following surgery (P < 0.05). In addition, complete resection achieved a higher degree of SD relief than partial resection. The incidence of SD in functioning pituitary adenomas (FPAs) was much higher than that in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) (P < 0.05). In addition, compared with NFPAs, males with prolactinomas (82.8%) had the higher prevalence of SD and significantly improvement following surgical intervention (P < 0.05). An inverse relationship was identified between decreasing testosterone levels and increasing incidence of SD before surgery (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between 6 months and 12 months after surgery in serum testosterone level (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that surgical therapy could be optimized for improvements in SD and that testosterone levels can be used as a sensitive indicator to predict the recovery rate of sexual function in patients with pituitary adenomas following surgery and the serum testosterone level will stay stable in 6 months after surgery.
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Role of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in apoptosis of cavernosal tissue during acute phase after cavernosal nerve injury p. 50
Won Hoon Song, Hwancheol Son, Soo Woong Kim, Jae-Seung Paick, Min Chul Cho
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_10_17  PMID:28440265
The present study aimed to identify which mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 or Jun amino-terminal kinase [JNK]) was involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after cavernosal nerve crush injury (CNCI) in rats to ameliorate apoptosis of cavernosal tissue, such as smooth muscle (SM). A total of twenty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into two groups: sham surgery (S) and CNCI (I). The I group approximated the clinical situation of men undergoing radical prostatectomy using two 60-second compressions of both CNs with a microsurgical vascular clamp. At 2-week postinjury, erectile response was assessed using electrostimulation. Penile tissues were harvested for immunohistochemistry analysis of alpha-SM actin (α-SMA), western blot analysis, and double immunofluorescence analysis of α-SMA and phosphorylated p38 or JNK, as well as double immunofluorescent of TUNEL and phosphorylated p38 or JNK. At 2-week postinjury, the I group had a significantly lower intracavernous pressure (ICP)/mean arterial pressure (MAP) and a lower area under the curve (AUC)/MAP than the S group. The I group also exhibited decreased immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA, an increase in the number of SM cells positive for phosphorylated JNK, an increased number of apoptotic cells positive for phosphorylated JNK, and increased JNK phosphorylation compared with the S group. However, there was no significant difference in p38 phosphorylation expression or the number of SM cells positive for phosphorylated p38 between the two groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that JNK, not p38, is involved in cavernosal apoptosis during the acute phase after partial CN damage.
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Combined analysis of CRMP4 methylation levels and CAPRA-S score predicts metastasis and outcomes in prostate cancer patients p. 56
Qun-Xiong Huang, Chu-Tian Xiao, Zheng Chen, Min-Hua Lu, Jun Pang, Jin-Ming Di, Zi-Huan Luo, Xin Gao
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_3_17  PMID:28382925
The present study analyzed the predictive value of combined analysis of collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) methylation levels and the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA-S) Postsurgical score of patients who required adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). We retrospectively analyzed 305 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who received RP and subsequent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Two hundred and thirty patients with clinically high-risk PCa underwent immediate ADT, and 75 patients with intermediate risk PCa underwent deferred ADT. CRMP4 methylation levels in biopsies were determined, and CAPRA-S scores were calculated. In the deferred ADT group, the values of the hazard ratios for tumor progression and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with ≥15% CRMP4 methylation were 6.81 (95% CI: 2.34-19.80) and 12.83 (95% CI: 2.16-26.10), respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that CRMP4 methylation levels ≥15% served as a significant prognostic marker of tumor progression and CSM. In the immediate ADT group, CAPRA-S scores ≥6 and CRMP4 methylation levels ≥15% were independent predictors of these outcomes (uni- and multi-variable Cox regression analyses). The differences in the 5-year progression-free survival between each combination were statistically significant. Combining CAPRA-S score and CRMP4 methylation levels improved the area under the curve compared with the CRMP4 or CAPRA-S model. Therefore, CRMP4 methylation levels ≥15% were significantly associated with a poor prognosis and their combination with CAPRA-S score accurately predicted tumor progression and metastasis for patients requiring AHT after RP.
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Suprapubic cystostomy versus nonsuprapubic cystostomy during monopolar transurethral resection of prostate: a propensity score-matched analysis p. 62
Run-Qi Guo, Yi-Sen Meng, Wei Yu, Kai Zhang, Ben Xu, Yun-Xiang Xiao, Shi-Liang Wu, Bai-Nian Pan
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_6_17  PMID:28440263
We aim to reassess the safety of the monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (M-TURP) without suprapubic cystostomy at our institution over the past decade. This retrospective study was conducted in patients who underwent M-TURP at Peking University First Hospital between 2003 and 2013. A total of 1680 patients who had undergone M-TURP were identified, including 539 patients in the noncystostomy group and 1141 patients in the cystostomy group. After propensity score matching, the number of patients in each group was 456. Smaller reductions in hemoglobin and hematocrit (10.9 g vs 17.6 g and 3.6% vs 4.7%, respectively) were found in the noncystostomy group. In addition, patients undergoing surgery without cystostomy had their catheters removed earlier (4.6 days vs 5.2 days), required shorter postoperative stays in the hospital (5.1 days vs 6.0 days), and were at lower risk of operative complications (5.7% vs 9.2%), especially bleeding requiring blood transfusion (2.9% vs 6.1%). Similar findings were observed in cohorts of prostates of 30-80 ml and prostates >80 ml. Furthermore, among patients with a resection weight >42.5 g or surgical time >90 min, or even propensity-matched patients based on surgical time, those with cystostomy seemed to be at a higher risk of operative complications. These results suggest that M-TURP without suprapubic cystostomy is a safe and effective method, even among patients with larger prostates, heavier estimated resection weights, and longer surgical times.
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Patient-reported ejaculatory function and satisfaction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia p. 69
Min Chul Cho, Jung Kwon Kim, Sang Hoon Song, Sung Yong Cho, Sang Wook Lee, Soo Woong Kim, Jae-Seung Paick
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_11_17  PMID:28474611
This study aimed to investigate perceived ejaculatory function/satisfaction before treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to identify associations between specific categories of ejaculatory dysfunctions (EjDs) and LUTS. A total of 1574 treatment-naïve men with LUTS/BPH were included in this study. All patients underwent routine evaluation for LUTS/BPH including the International Index of Erectile Function and a 5-item questionnaire developed to assess ejaculatory volume/force/pain/satisfaction/latency time. Patients who had sexual intercourse over the past 4 weeks were classified as sexually active group. A total of 783 patients were categorized as sexually active group. Decreased ejaculatory volume and force were reported by 53.4% and 55.7% of 783 sexually active men, respectively. There was a strong correlation between ejaculatory volume and force. Ejaculatory pain/discomfort, premature ejaculation (PE), and delayed ejaculation (DE) were reported in 41.0%, 16.3%, and 41.4% of the patients, respectively. Over 40.0% of men without decreased ejaculation volume/force were satisfied with ejaculatory function, whereas approximately 6.0% of men with decreased volume/force were satisfied with ejaculatory function. About 30.0% of men with decreased volume/force had orgasmic dysfunction, while approximately 10.0% of men without decreased volume/force did. Decreased ejaculatory volume or force was associated with LUTS severity after adjusting for other influential factors including testosterone level, erectile function, and prostate size on ultrasonography, but PE or DE or ejaculatory pain/discomfort was not. In conclusion, a considerable portion of men with LUTS/BPH appear to have a variety of EjDs. Ejaculatory volume/force and satisfaction/orgasm do not always appear to be concordant. Ejaculatory volume or force is independently associated with LUTS severity, whereas PE or DE or ejaculatory pain/discomfort is not.
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Sperm DNA damage has a negative effect on early embryonic development following in vitro fertilization p. 75
Wei-Wei Zheng, Ge Song, Qi-Ling Wang, Shan-Wen Liu, Xiao-Li Zhu, Shun-Mei Deng, An Zhong, Yu-Mei Tan, Ying Tan
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_19_17  PMID:28675153
Sperm DNA damage is recognized as an important biomarker of male infertility. To investigate this, sperm DNA damage was assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test in semen and motile spermatozoa harvested by combined density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up in 161 couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Semen analysis and sperm DNA damage results were compared between couples who did or did not achieve pregnancy. The sperm DNA damage level was significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05) and was negatively correlated with IVF outcomes. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that it was an independent predictor for achieving clinical pregnancy. The effects of different levels of sperm DNA damage on IVF outcomes were also compared. There were significant differences in day 3 embryo quality, blastocyst formation rate, and implantation and pregnancy rates (P < 0.05), but not in the basic fertilization rate between the two groups. Thus, sperm DNA damage as measured by the SCD appears useful for predicting the clinical pregnancy rate following IVF.
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Efficacy and safety of newly developed cross-linked dextran gel injection for glans penis augmentation with a novel technique p. 80
Dae Yul Yang, Kyungtae Ko, Seong Ho Lee, Du Geon Moon, Jong Wook Kim, Won Ki Lee
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_1_17  PMID:28303807
There is no safe and effective standard method for glans penis augmentation. Furthermore, there has been scant research on glans penis augmentation due to a poor understanding of glans anatomy, technical difficulty, and a lack of suitable substances for augmentation. Cross-linked dextran gel is a newly developed filler for soft-tissue augmentation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of using a novel technique to inject cross-linked dextran gel for glans penis augmentation during a 24-week follow-up study. This prospective, single-arm, multicenter study enrolled twenty healthy adult men who underwent glans penis augmentation between June and August 2013. Cross-linked dextran gel was injected into the glans penis using a simple and easy technique. The sizes of the glans penis and individual satisfaction were assessed. Any adverse event was also reported. A total of 18 individuals were analyzed; two of them were lost to follow-up. The mean procedure time and injected volume were about 30 min and 6.6 ± 0.9 ml, respectively. The mean surface areas of the glans at baseline and 24 weeks were 20.0 ± 3.5 cm2 and 33.6 ± 5.4 cm2 , respectively, representing a mean increase of 68.7% ± 14.0% (P < 0.001). Sixteen individuals (88.9%) were satisfied with the outcomes, and none were dissatisfied. There were no serious adverse events during the study. Cross-linked dextran gel injection for glans penis augmentation was easy and showed a significant augmentative effect on the glans penis, good durability, and was well tolerated without serious adverse events. Therefore, cross-linked dextran gel injection may be an effective, new technique for glans penis augmentation.
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Association between diacylglycerol kinase kappa variants and hypospadias susceptibility in a Han Chinese population p. 85
Hua Xie, Xiao-Ling Lin, Song Zhang, Ling Yu, Xiao-Xi Li, Yi-Chen Huang, Yi-Qing Lyu, Hai-Tao Chen, Jianfeng Xu, Fang Chen
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_13_17  PMID:28597849
Previous genome-wide association studies have identified variants in the diacylglycerol kinase kappa (DGKK) gene associated with hypospadias in populations of European descent. However, no variants of DGKK were confirmed to be associated with hypospadias in a recent Han Chinese study population, likely due to the limited number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the analysis. In this study, we aimed to address the inconsistent results and evaluate the association between DGKK and hypospadias in the Han Chinese population through a more comprehensive analysis of DGKK variants. We conducted association analyses for 17 SNPs in or downstream of DGKK with hypospadias among 322 cases (58 mild, 113 moderate, 128 severe, and 23 unknown) and 1008 controls. Five SNPs (rs2211122, rs4554617, rs7058226, rs7063116, and rs5915254) in DGKK were significantly associated with hypospadias (P < 0.05), with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.64-1.76. When only mild and moderate cases were compared to controls, 10 SNPs in DGKK were significant (P < 0.05), with ORs of 1.56-2.13. No significant SNP was observed when only severe cases were compared to controls. This study successfully implicated DGKK variants in hypospadias risk among a Han Chinese population, especially for mild/moderate cases. Severe forms of hypospadias are likely due to other genetic factors.
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CLINICIANS WORKSHOP Top

Nondegloving technique for Peyronie's disease with penile prosthesis implantation and double dorsal-ventral patch graft p. 90
Andrew Fang, Run Wang
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_42_17  PMID:28959941
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion prostate biopsy with semi-robotic navigation in the Chinese population: initial results p. 93
Wai Kit Ma, Brian SH Ho, Andrew SH Lai, Ka Cheong Lam, Yun Sang Chan, Lawrance KC Yip, Ada TL Ng, James HL Tsu, Ming Kwong Yiu
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.196855  PMID:28327476
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A rare cellular angiofibroma of the epididymis p. 95
Qiang Guo, Jian-Dong Zhang, Li Li, Jian-Ping Xie, Ding Ma, Yan-Gang Zhang
DOI:10.4103/aja.aja_4_17  PMID:28303808
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A nonobstructive azoospermic patient with Trichomonas vaginalis infection in testes p. 97
Yue-Hua Gong, Yue Liu, Peng Li, Zi-Jue Zhu, Yan Hong, Guo-Hui Fu, Yun-Jing Xue, Chen Xu, Zheng Li
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.195561  PMID:28051042
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Commentary on "The association between sexual function and prostate cancer risk in US veterans" p. 99
Kai Wang, Linda B Cottler
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.196853  PMID:28272056
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Re: Commentary on "The association between sexual function and prostate cancer risk in US veterans" p. 100
Adriana C Vidal, Stephen J Freedland
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.196854  PMID:28272057
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Case study of a patient with cryptozoospermia associated with a recessive TEX15 nonsense mutation p. 101
Xiong Wang, Hai-Rong Jin, Yuan-Qing Cui, Jie Chen, Yan-Wei Sha, Zhen-Li Gao
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.194998  PMID:28303806
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Association between polymorphisms in the human serotonin transporter gene and lifelong premature ejaculation in the Han population p. 103
Dang-Wei Peng, Jing-Jing Gao, Yuan-Yuan Huang, Dong-Dong Tang, Pan Gao, Chao Li, Wei-Qun Liu, Xian-Ming Dou, Jun Mao, Yao Zhang, Hao Geng, Xian-Sheng Zhang
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.194817  PMID:28139473
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A comprehensive analysis of chromosomal anomalies in metaphase II spermatocytes from infertile patients p. 105
Zaida Sarrate, Joan Blanco, Oliver Valero, Francesca Vidal
DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.194819  PMID:28230004
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