INVITED REVIEW
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 459-470

Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia


ANDROFERT, Center for Male Reproduction, Campinas 13075-460, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Sandro C Esteves
ANDROFERT, Center for Male Reproduction, Campinas 13075-460
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.148719

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The clinical management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. This review presents a personal perspective on the clinical management of NOA, including the lessons learned over 15 years dealing with this male infertility condition. A five-consecutive-step algorithm is proposed to manage such patients. First, a differential diagnosis of azoospermia is made to confirm/establish that NOA is due to spermatogenic failure. Second, genetic testing is carried out not only to detect the males in whom NOA is caused by microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome, but also to counsel the affected patients about their chances of having success in sperm retrieval. Third, it is determined whether any intervention prior to a surgical retrieval attempt may be used to increase sperm production. Fourth, the most effective and efficient retrieval method is selected to search for testicular sperm. Lastly, state-of-art laboratory techniques are applied in the handling of retrieved gametes and cultivating the embryos resulting from sperm injections. A coordinated multidisciplinary effort is key to offer the best possible chance of achieving a biological offspring to males with NOA.


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