Table of Contents  
INVITED REVIEW
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-10

Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?


1 Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Geriatric Science, Second University of Naples, Piazza L. Miraglia n 2, Italy
2 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, via Pansini n 5, Naples, Italy

Date of Submission05-May-2014
Date of Decision27-Jun-2014
Date of Acceptance14-Jul-2014
Date of Web Publication09-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Katherine Esposito
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, via Pansini n 5, Naples
Italy
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.137687

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, wrong diets, overweight or obesity, metabolic syndrome, and excessive alcohol consumption. Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO), which is the driving force of the blood genital flow. Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production, testosterone levels, and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in the improvement of erectile function. In clinical trials, lifestyle modifications were effective in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome. Therefore, promotion of healthful lifestyles would yield great benefits in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, should be addressed.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction; lifestyle changes; physical activity; Mediterranean diet


How to cite this article:
Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?. Asian J Androl 2015;17:5-10

How to cite this URL:
Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected?. Asian J Androl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 Sep 24];17:5-10. Available from: http://www.ajandrology.com/text.asp?2015/17/1/5/137687 - DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.137687


  Introduction Top


Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical disorder which decreases quality of life in men. [1],[2] It has been estimated that the worldwide prevalence of ED will be 322 million cases by the year 2025. Risk factor categories associated with ED include general health status of the individual, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and of cardiovascular disease (CVD), concurrence of other genitourinary disease, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and sociodemographic conditions. [3] Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showed an association between ED and most of the cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome. [4] Moreover, ED is a marker of increased risk of CVD, and all-cause mortality. [5],[6],[7]

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality in both sexes worldwide: [8],[9] behavioral modifications that occurred in the last decades have led to the spreading of unhealthy lifestyles, which are believed to be one main cause of the burden of noncommunicable diseases worldwide. [10] Consequently, there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, both in the Westernized and the developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity has brought about the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus, occurring together more often than could be attributed to chance alone. On the basis of the most recent epidemiological analysis using the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for cut-off values, slightly more than one-third of adults in the United States could be characterized as having the metabolic syndrome. [11] Quite interestingly, all these metabolic conditions are strongly associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in endothelial dysfunction and decrease in the availability and activity of nitric oxide (NO). As NO is the driving force of the genital blood flow, it has been hypothesized and demonstrated that most cardiovascular risk factors are associated with ED in men. [12] Moreover, an inverse association between obesity and low-testosterone levels has been established in healthy men; the prevalence of low-testosterone levels in obesity may vary from 20% to 64% depending on the population and on whether total or free testosterone is used to make a diagnosis. [13] A higher prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been described in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [14] and referred to metabolic disorders causing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. [15] Testosterone regulates nearly every component of erectile function, and also modulates the timing of the erectile process, which occurs as a function of sexual desire, coordinating penile erection with sex.

Lifestyle and nutrition have been recognized as central factors influencing both vascular NO production and erectile function. Moreover, it has also been suggested that lifestyle habits that decrease low-grade clinical inflammation may have a role in reducing the burden of sexual dysfunction. [16] Both basic and clinical studies have shown that targeting several lifestyle factors commonly associated with ED, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and limited physical activity can have significant effects on improvement of erectile function as well as testosterone levels ([Figure 1]). [17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22] Therefore, there may be a role for lifestyle measures to prevent progression or even enhance the regression in the earliest manifestations of ED. [23] In this review, a comprehensive literary search was carried out in order to discuss the effects of lifestyle intervention strategies on erectile function, focusing on the potential mechanisms involved in increasing vascular NO production. We searched PubMed for papers published in English between 1990 and March 2014, using the key words "ED" and "lifestyle changes" "physical activity," "weight loss," "diet," "alcohol," "smoking;" we mainly focused on publications in the past 5 years. Other relevant articles identified by review of the reference lists of selected articles were also included.
Figure 1: Behavioral risk factors and principal mechanisms involved in erectile dysfunction.

Click here to view



  Epidemiology and Risk Factors Top


Erectile dysfunction is a frequent sexual problem that increases with age. According to a recent analysis of published works on the prevalence of sexual dysfunction by the International Consultation Committee for sexual medicine on definitions/epidemiology/risk factors for sexual dysfunction, [3] the prevalence of ED was 1%-10% in men younger than 40 years, 2%-9% among men between 40 and 49 years, and it increased to 20%-40% among men between 60 and 69 years, reaching the highest rate in men older than 70 years (50%-100%). Modifiable risk factors for ED include smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, recreational drug use. [24] In the Health Professional's Follow-up Study [25] several lifestyle factors, including physical activity and leanness, were associated with maintenance of good erectile function. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is the most common risk factor for ED, as diabetic men showed a three-fold probability of having ED than men without diabetes. [26] Moreover, both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have linked the development of ED to CVD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, [27],[28],[29] all of which are largely preventable with an intervention strategy based on lifestyle changes.


  Effects of Lifestyle Changes on Erectile Dysfunction Top


The association of modifiable behavioral factors with ED, primarily among men free of comorbidities, represents the rationale for intervention strategies addressed to prevent and potentially improve erectile function in patients with ED. As NO is a key factor for vascular health and ED is strongly associated with CVD, maximal attention should have to be paid on measures known to increase vascular NO production.

Physical activity

The only meta-analysis regarding exercise and ED showed that moderate and high physical activities were associated with a lower risk of ED, with odds ratios at 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.93) and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.22-0.82), respectively. [30] Several prospective investigations indicate that the physical activity has a beneficial effect on prevention and/or improvements of ED. [31],[32],[33]

In hypertensive patients with ED, an 8-week exercise training for the duration of 45-60 min day−1 , improved ED compared with controls who remained sedentary during the same period. [34] A recent study evaluated the effect of a standard protocol of aerobic physical activity (150 min week−1 ) on quality of ED in middle-aged patients with arterial ED. [35] After 3 months, compared with controls, patients in the intervention group showed a significantly higher International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5) score associated with a reduction of apoptotic circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and endothelial microparticles. In a randomized, open-label study, [36] a total of 60 patients with ED were randomized to receive phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) alone or PDE5i plus regular (≥3 h week−1 ), aerobic, nonagonistic physical activity. After 3 months, IIEF restoration of ED occurred in 77.8% (intervention group) versus 39.3% (control) (P < 0.004). Moreover, physical activity was the only independent variable for normal erection (P = 0.010), higher sexual satisfaction (P = 0.022) and normal total IIEF-15 score (P = 0.023), suggesting that lifestyle changes may significantly increase the benefits of medical ED therapy.

The mechanisms by which physical activity ameliorates ED include improved cardiovascular fitness and endothelial dysfunction, [37] increase in endothelial-derived NO, [38] decrease in oxidative stress, [20] and increase in regenerative EPCs. [39] Moreover, physical exercise showed beneficial effects on self-esteem and mental health, [40] with a positive impact on psychological issues associated with sexual dysfunction.

Weight loss

Both cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk of ED. [41] In particular, the largest population from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States, including 31 724 men free of ED at baseline, showed a 40% increased risk of developing ED with obesity. [25] Prospective studies [31],[42],[43] of variable duration from 5 to 25 years of follow-up reported that overweight or obese men had an increased probability (70%-96% higher) of developing ED compared with normal weight men.

Both short- and long-term weight-loss studies including only caloric modifications or restrictions demonstrated improvement of ED. In a study examining the effect of weight loss on quality of life among 37 men and women, after a follow-up of 28 days, the weight loss program seemed to have been beneficial on sexual life among men. [44] Khoo et al. [22] compared the effects of 8 weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) using meal replacements (KicStart) on insulin sensitivity, plasma testosterone levels, erectile function (IIEF-5), and sexual desire as measured by the Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI) in abdominally obese men with uncomplicated diabetes (n = 519) or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 525) with a control group of nondiabetic men (n = 526) with similar body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Weight loss of 10% was significantly associated with increased insulin sensitivity, plasma testosterone levels, and IIEF-5 and SDI scores in diabetic as well as nondiabetic men. The same group investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss on sexual and endothelial function, lower urinary tract symptoms, and inflammatory markers in obese diabetic men. [45] Over 8 weeks, 31 abdominally obese type 2 diabetic men received either a meal replacement-based LCD ~1000 kcal day−1 (n = 19) or low-fat, high-protein (HP), reduced-carbohydrate diet (n = 12). Subjects continued on, or were switched to, the HP diet for another 44 weeks. Compared with patients with HP, men with LCD lost more weight (5% vs 10%). Moreover, both diets significantly improved plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein, sex hormone-binding globulin, IIEF-5, SDI, and endothelial function (increased flow-mediated dilatation, reduced soluble E-selectin). At 52 weeks, reductions in weight, WC, and C-reactive protein were maintained, and IIEF-5, and SDI scores improved further. Similar results were obtained with bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. In a randomized controlled trial, [46] surgery-induced weight loss increased erectile function quality measured by IIEF-5, with increased total testosterone, free testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and reduced prolactin levels. Moreover, significant improvements in all domains of the Brief Sexual Function Inventory, including erectile function, were also demonstrated in a 2 years study of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. [47]

Increased visceral adiposity and related risk factors are associated with a pro-inflammatory state that results in a decrease in the availability and activity of NO; the reduced testosterone levels associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome may worsen both insulin resistance and endothelial function, thereby contributing to ED. [48] Moreover, body weight loss, obtained either by lifestyle or bariatric intervention, is associated with a decline in estrogen levels and a rise in gonadotropins and testosterone, which is greater in those who lose more body weight. [49]

Dietary factors

Dietary patterns with high content of whole grain foods and legumes and vegetables and fruits, and that limit red meat, full-fat dairy products, and food and beverages high in added sugars are associated with a reduced risk of ED. [50] The greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, in particular, has been associated with a lower prevalence of ED in both diabetic and nondiabetic men. [51],[52]

Only few studies assessed the role or the effect of diet on ED. Esposito et al. [53] studied 65 men with the metabolic syndrome and ED; 35 out of them were assigned to the intervention diet and 30 to the control diet. Subjects in the intervention group were advised to consume at least 250-300 g of fruits, 125-150 g of vegetables, and 25-50 g of nuts per day; in addition, they were encouraged to consume 400 g of whole grains daily (legumes, rice, maize, and wheat) and to increase the consumption of olive oil. After 2 years, men on the Mediterranean diet consumed more fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grain, and olive oil when compared with men on the control diet. IIEF score increased up to 22 in 13 and 2 men in the intervention group and control group, respectively (P = 0.015).

A substantial body of knowledge demonstrates that the abundant consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole grain, and the dietary patterns rich in these foods produced a markedly lower risk of coronary disease. [54] The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on atherosclerosis in general, and ED in particular can be mediated through multiple biological pathways, including a reduction of oxidative stress and subclinical inflammation, amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and insulin sensitivity, [55],[56] which in turn may increase NO release in the penis arteries.

Overall lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity, healthy diet, and reduced caloric intake, have been associated with the amelioration of erectile function in the general male population. Esposito et al. [16] conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 110 obese men with ED. Men assigned to the intervention group were entered in an intensive weight loss program, involving personalized dietary counseling and exercise advice, and regular meetings with a nutritionist and personal trainer. The dietary advice was tailored to each man on the basis of food records collected on three nonconsecutive days which had to be done the week before the meeting with a nutritionist. Men in the control group were given general oral and written information about healthy food choices and exercise at baseline and subsequent bimonthly visits, but no specific individualized programs were offered to them. After 2 years, men randomized to the intervention lost significantly more weight, increased their physical activity, experienced favorable changes in physiologic measures of endothelial dysfunction, and had significant improvement in their ED score compared with men in the control group. The same group used their database of subjects participating in randomized controlled trials to evaluate whether improvements in erectile function were related to success in achieving lifestyle changes. [20] After ranking men according to their success in achieving the goals of intervention (weight loss, low intake of saturated fat, high consumption of monounsaturated fat and fiber, and moderate physical activity), a strong correlation was observed between the success score and the restoration of erectile function. Moreover, at the 2 years examination point, the number of men without ED was significantly higher in the group randomized to intensive lifestyle changes compared with that of men in the control group. Wing et al. [57] evaluated 1 year changes in erectile function in 306 overweight men with type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in the Look Action for Health in Diabetes trial; from baseline to 1 year, 8% of men assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention reported a worsening of erectile function compared to 22% of the control participants. Moreover, the overall IIEF score improved from 17.3 to 18.6 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.06, after adjusting for baseline differences) in the intervention group.

The suggested mechanisms by which weight loss, healthy diet, and physical exercise can improve erectile function include the amelioration of endothelial dysfunction, insulin-resistance, and low-grade inflammatory state associated with diabetes and metabolic diseases - all of which are risk factors for ED. [58] The resulting improved inflammatory status may help contribute to reduce the burden of sexual dysfunction in men.

Smoking

Both the direct use of tobacco and second-hand exposure seem a consolidated risk factor for ED. [59],[60] A recent meta-analysis of four prospective cohort studies and four case-control studies involving 28 586 participants showed that compared with nonsmokers, the overall odd ratio of ED in prospective cohort studies was 1.51 (95% CI: 1.34-1.71) for current smokers, and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07-1.47) for former smokers. [61]

Harte and Meston [62] investigated the association between smoking cessation and indices of physiological and subjective sexual health in men: smoking cessation significantly enhanced both physiological and self-reported indices of sexual health in long-term male smokers, irrespective of baseline erectile impairment. In a prospective study, Pourmand et al. [63] reported a beneficial effect on erectile function in men who ceased smoking. After 1 year the ED status improved in ≥25% of ex-smokers but in none of the current smokers; moreover, men who stopped smoking continued to have a significantly better ED status with long-term follow-up.

Alcohol

The moderate consumption of alcohol may exert a protective effect on ED in both the general population and in diabetic men. [25],[64] In a recent study aimed at describing the incidence or remission and bio-psychosocial predictors of ED in 810 randomly selected Australian men aged 35-80, low-alcohol consumption was predictor of ED. [65] The data from a population-based cross-sectional study of men's health to assess the association between usual alcohol consumption and ED in Australia revealed that among current drinkers (n = 51 374), the odds were lowest for consumption between 1 and 20 standard drinks per week. [19] On further adjustment for CVD or cigarette smoking, age-adjusted odds of ED were reduced by 25%-30% among alcohol drinkers. In general, the overall findings are suggestive of alcohol consumption of a moderate quantity conferring the highest protection. [66] The beneficial effects of alcohol on erectile function may be due, in part, to the long-term benefits of alcohol on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other variables that increase the bioavailability of NO.

Experimental findings involving lifestyle modifications

Corroborating findings in the clinical studies, several experimental studies demonstrate beneficial effects of lifestyle-related factors (exercise, calories restriction, dietary factors, alcohol, smoking) on erectile function in animal models of ED. The most frequently reported models of ED used rodents as the predominant animal for investigating erectile function. Experimental animal models of ED include traumatic, metabolic (diabetes, hypercholesterolemia/lipidemia, and castration) and other organic models (smoking, hypertension, and chronic renal failure). [67] In male Sprague-Dawley rats, both erectile function and coronary artery erectile function (CAEF) were blunted in Western diet-fed rats who remained sedentary, but were preserved in those who started physical exercise (aerobic treadmill running) throughout the dietary intervention, suggesting that exercise training may be a practical strategy of preventing diet-induced ED. [68] A recent study in the same experimental model of rats demonstrated that the caloric restriction preserved both visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and erectile function; moreover, analysis of body composition showed that enhanced erectile response in calories-restricted rats was well correlated with the lower levels of VAT, indicating that the beneficial effect on erectile function may depend on decrease in adipose tissue. [69] Hannan et al. [70] showed that a combination of exercise and calories restriction may, in part, attenuated the age-related decline in apomorphine-induced erectile function in both normotensive and hypertensive rats, with an inverse correlation between the number of pharmacologically-induced erections and body weight. The role of dietary anti-oxidants on erectile function was investigated in a study of Zhang et al.: [71] rabbits with atherosclerosis-induced ED by balloon de-endothelialization of the iliac arteries were assigned to assumption of pomegranate extract as dietary anti-oxidant or tap water as placebo. Compared with rabbits receiving placebo, those who assumed pomegranate underwent improvement of intracavernosal blood flow, erectile activity, smooth-muscle relaxation and decrease in oxidative products, suggesting that dietary anti-oxidants may have an effect on molecular and ultra-structural alteration involved on ED. Ethanol may impair the endothelial function of corpus cavernosum producing endothelial damage, as it abolishes the endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by acetylcholine in mice. [72] Finally, chronic exposure to smoking decreases significantly both testosterone levels and the filling rate of corpora cavernosa in mice, when compared with a control group who was not exposed. [73]


  Which role for Lifestyle Changes in Erectile Dysfunction? Top


Erectile dysfunction is associated with smoking, excessive alcohol intake, physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, and decreased anti-oxidant defenses, all of which reduce NO availability. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition of the many physiological causes of ED and of the potential for therapy to improve patient's quality of life, self-esteem, and ability to maintain intimate relationships. [74] Although epidemiological evidence seems to support a role for lifestyle factors, limited data are available suggesting that the treatment of underlying risk factors and coexisting illnesses - for example with diet, exercise, stress reduction, and smoking cessation - may improve ED. [24] It has been demonstrated that lifestyle-based intervention strategies improve endothelial function, NO bio-availability, and testosterone levels, producing benefits on erectile function. [12],[16],[49] The major limitation remains the paucity of intervention studies that have assessed the role of lifestyle changes on ED. Moreover, the studies reviewed are mainly limited to the exiguity of the study samples. However, the European Association of Urology recently stated that "lifestyle changes and risk factors modification must precede or accompany ED treatment" and classified the Level of Evidence as 1b with a Grade A. [75]

None of the many available treatment options offers a complete response in all patients. Thus, as with many other medical diseases, prevention maybe the most effective approach to alleviate the consequences of ED. Despite the increasing evidence that unhealthy lifestyles lead to metabolic diseases, including sexual dysfunction, the majority of adults fail to meet physical activity and nutritional guidelines. [76] In particular, it is recommended that adults accumulate 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity on most days of the week. Moreover, a weight loss of 5%-10% in overweight or obese nondiabetic or diabetic men can result in effective improvement in erectile function in a short period. The lack of food-based recommendations and actual dietary practice of the population could be an additional limitation. However, dietary pattern which is high in fruit, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and fish but low in red and processed meat and refined grains are more represented in subjects without ED. Mediterranean diet has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern based on evidence that greater adherence to this diet is associated with lower all-cause and disease-specific survival. In clinical trials, Mediterranean diet was more effective than a control diet in ameliorating ED or restoring absent ED in people with obesity or metabolic syndrome, so that the adoption of a Mediterranean diet may be associated with an improvement of ED.


  Conclusions Top


Improvement of sexual (erectile) function in men should be added to the growing list of clinical benefits brought about by healthy lifestyles in human beings. Current recommendation that patients should observe to avoid or alleviate ED include increasing physical exercise, reducing weight (5%-10% or achieving a BMI ≤ 30 kg m−2 ), stopping smoking ([Table 1]). [77] When comorbidities, such as diabetes or hypertension, are present lifestyle modifications may be important in preventing or reducing sexual dysfunction. [4] From this point of view, promotion of healthful lifestyles for primary prevention among individuals at all ages would yield great benefits and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases, including sexual dysfunction. Efforts, in order to implement educative strategies for healthy lifestyle, have to be addressed.
Table 1: Suggested recommendations on lifestyle changes to be observed in order to prevent/treat erectile dysfunction

Click here to view


 
  References Top

1.
Laumann EO, Paik A, Rosen RC. Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictors. JAMA 1999; 281: 537-44.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, et al. Erectile dysfunction and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients: a serious problem too often overlooked. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 284-91.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Lewis RW, Fugl-Meyer KS, Corona G, Hayes RD, Laumann EO, et al. Definitions/epidemiology/risk factors for sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med 2010; 7: 1598-607.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Esposito K. Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2014; 7: 95-105.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Turek SJ, Hastings SM, Sun JK, King GL, Keenan HA. Sexual dysfunction as a marker of cardiovascular disease in males with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013; 36: 3222-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Dong JY, Zhang YH, Qin LQ. Erectile dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 58: 1378-85.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Araujo AB, Travison TG, Ganz P, Chiu GR, Kupelian V, et al. Erectile dysfunction and mortality. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 2445-54.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, et al. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics-2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2014; 129: 399-410.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
OECD. Mortality from heart disease and stroke, in Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing; 2011. Available from: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1787/health_glance-2011-6-en [last accessed on 2014 Jun 25].  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ezzati M, Riboli E. Behavioral and dietary risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. N Engl J Med 2013; 369: 954-64.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ervin RB. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003-2006. Natl Health Stat Report 2009; 5: 1-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Meldrum DR, Gambone JC, Morris MA, Meldrum DA, Esposito K, et al. The link between erectile and cardiovascular health: the canary in the coal mine. Am J Cardiol 2011; 108: 599-606.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kalyani RR, Dobs AS. Androgen deficiency, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome in men. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2007; 14: 226-34.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Dandona P, Dhindsa S. Update: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes and obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011; 96: 2643-51.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Olita L, De Bellis A, Giugliano D, et al. Anti-pituitary antibodies and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes: in search of a role. Diabetes Care. 2013; 36: e116-117.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Esposito K, Giugliano F, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Marfella R, et al. Effect of lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291: 2978-84.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Hannan JL, Maio MT, Komolova M, Adams MA. Beneficial impact of exercise and obesity interventions on erectile function and its risk factors. J Sex Med 2009; 6 Suppl 3: 254-61.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Horasanli K, Boylu U, Kendirci M, Miroglu C. Do lifestyle changes work for improving erectile dysfunction? Asian J Androl 2008; 10: 28-35.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Chew KK, Bremner A, Stuckey B, Earle C, Jamrozik K. Alcohol consumption and male erectile dysfunction: an unfounded reputation for risk? J Sex Med 2009; 6: 1386-94.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, Maiorino MI, Autorino R, et al. Effects of intensive lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in men. J Sex Med 2009; 6: 243-50.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Håkonsen LB, Thulstrup AM, Aggerholm AS, Olsen J, Bonde JP, et al. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men. Reprod Health 2011; 8: 24.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Khoo J, Piantadosi C, Worthley S, Wittert GA. Effects of a low-energy diet on sexual function and lower urinary tract symptoms in obese men. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010; 34: 1396-403.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Esposito K, Giugliano F, Maiorino MI, Giugliano D. Dietary factors, Mediterranean diet and erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med 2010; 7: 2338-45.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Shamloul R, Ghanem H. Erectile dysfunction. Lancet 2013; 381: 153-65.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Bacon CG, Mittleman MA, Kawachi I, Giovannucci E, Glasser DB, et al. Sexual function in men older than 50 years of age: results from the health professionals follow-up study. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 161-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol 1994; 151: 54-61.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Probstfield JL, Moinpour CM, et al. Erectile dysfunction and subsequent cardiovascular disease. JAMA 2005; 294: 2996-3002.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Giuliano FA, Leriche A, Jaudinot EO, de Gendre AS. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction among 7689 patients with diabetes or hypertension, or both. Urology 2004; 64: 1196-201.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Esposito K, Giugliano F, Martedì E, Feola G, Marfella R, et al. High proportions of erectile dysfunction in men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 1201-3.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Cheng JY, Ng EM, Ko JS, Chen RY. Physical activity and erectile dysfunction: meta-analysis of population-based studies. Int J Impot Res 2007; 19: 245-52.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Feldman HA, Johannes CB, Derby CA, Kleinman KP, Mohr BA, et al. Erectile dysfunction and coronary risk factors: prospective results from the Massachusetts male aging study. Prev Med 2000; 30: 328-38.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Bacon CG, Mittleman MA, Kawachi I, Giovannucci E, Glasser DB, et al. A prospective study of risk factors for erectile dysfunction. J Urol 2006; 176: 217-21.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Ponholzer A, Temml C, Mock K, Marszalek M, Obermayr R, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in 2869 men using a validated questionnaire. Eur Urol 2005; 47: 80-5.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Lamina S, Okoye CG, Dagogo TT. Therapeutic effect of an interval exercise training program in the management of erectile dysfunction in hypertensive patients. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2009; 11: 125-9.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, D'Agata R, Calogero A. Aerobic physical activity improves endothelial function in the middle-aged patients with erectile dysfunction. Aging Male 2011; 14: 265-72.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Maio G, Saraeb S, Marchiori A. Physical activity and PDE5 inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: results of a randomized controlled study. J Sex Med 2010; 7: 2201-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Meldrum DR, Gambone JC, Morris MA, Esposito K, Giugliano D, et al. Lifestyle and metabolic approaches to maximizing erectile and vascular health. Int J Impot Res 2012; 24: 61-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Meldrum DR, Burnett AL, Dorey G, Esposito K, Ignarro LJ. Erectile hydraulics: maximizing inflow while minimizing outflow. J Sex Med 2014; 11: 1208-20.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
van Craenenbroeck EM, Conraads VM. Endothelial progenitor cells in vascular health: focus on lifestyle. Microvasc Res 2010; 79: 184-92.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, et al. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 9: CD004366. doi: 10.1002/14651858.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Larsen SH, Wagner G, Heitmann BL. Sexual function and obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007; 31: 1189-98.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Shiri R, Koskimäki J, Hakama M, Häkkinen J, Huhtala H, et al. Effect of life-style factors on incidence of erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 2004; 16: 389-94.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Fung MM, Bettencourt R, Barrett-Connor E. Heart disease risk factors predict erectile dysfunction 25 years later: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43: 1405-11.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Kolotkin RL, Head S, Hamilton M, Tse CK. Assessing impact of weight on quality of life. Obes Res 1995; 3: 49-56.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Khoo J, Piantadosi C, Duncan R, Worthley SG, Jenkins A, et al. Comparing effects of a low-energy diet and a high-protein low-fat diet on sexual and endothelial function, urinary tract symptoms, and inflammation in obese diabetic men. J Sex Med 2011; 8: 2868-75.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Reis LO, Favaro WJ, Barreiro GC, de Oliveira LC, Chaim EA, et al. Erectile dysfunction and hormonal imbalance in morbidly obese male is reversed after gastric bypass surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Int J Androl 2010; 33: 736-44.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Dallal RM, Chernoff A, O'Leary MP, Smith JA, Braverman JD, et al. Sexual dysfunction is common in the morbidly obese male and improves after gastric bypass surgery. J Am Coll Surg 2008; 207: 859-64.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Esposito K, Giugliano D. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and sexual dysfunction in men. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011; 90: 169-73.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Corona G, Rastrelli G, Monami M, Saad F, Luconi M, et al. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 2013; 168: 829-43.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Wang F, Dai S, Wang M, Morrison H. Erectile dysfunction and fruit/vegetable consumption among diabetic Canadian men. Urology 2013; 82: 1330-5.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Giugliano F, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, Autorino R, De Sio M, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and erectile dysfunction in men with type 2 diabetes. J Sex Med 2010; 7: 1911-7.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Esposito K, Giugliano F, De Sio M, Carleo D, Di Palo C, et al. Dietary factors in erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 2006; 18: 370-4.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, De Sio M, Giugliano G, et al. Mediterranean diet improves erectile function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Int J Impot Res 2006; 18: 405-10.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA 2002; 288: 2569-78.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Lopez-Garcia E, Hu FB. Nutrition and the endothelium. Curr Diab Rep 2004; 4: 253-9.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Esposito K, Giugliano D. Diet and inflammation: a link to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 15-20.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Wing RR, Rosen RC, Fava JL, Bahnson J, Brancati F, et al. Effects of weight loss intervention on erectile function in older men with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD trial. J Sex Med 2010; 7: 156-65.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Esposito K, Giugliano D. Lifestyle/dietary recommendations for erectile dysfunction and female sexual dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am 2011; 38: 293-301.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Polsky JY, Aronson KJ, Heaton JP, Adams MA. Smoking and other lifestyle factors in relation to erectile dysfunction. BJU Int 2005; 96: 1355-9.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Kupelian V, Link CL, McKinlay JB. Association between smoking, passive smoking, and erectile dysfunction: results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey. Eur Urol 2007; 52: 416-22.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Cao S, Yin X, Wang Y, Zhou H, Song F, et al. Smoking and risk of erectile dysfunction: systematic review of observational studies with meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013; 8: e60443.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Harte CB, Meston CM. Association between smoking cessation and sexual health in men. BJU Int 2012; 109: 888-96.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Pourmand G, Alidaee MR, Rasuli S, Maleki A, Mehrsai A. Do cigarette smokers with erectile dysfunction benefit from stopping? A prospective study. BJU Int 2004; 94: 1310-3.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Kalter-Leibovici O, Wainstein J, Ziv A, Harman-Bohem I, Murad H, et al. Clinical, socioeconomic, and lifestyle parameters associated with erectile dysfunction among diabetic men. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 1739-44.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Martin SA, Atlantis E, Lange K, Taylor AW, O'Loughlin P, et al. Predictors of sexual dysfunction incidence and remission in men. J Sex Med 2014; 11: 1136-47.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Cheng JY, Ng EM, Chen RY, Ko JS. Alcohol consumption and erectile dysfunction: meta-analysis of population-based studies. Int J Impot Res 2007; 19: 343-52.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Chung E, De Young L, Brock GB. Investigative models in erectile dysfunction: a state-of-the-art review of current animal models. J Sex Med 2011; 8: 3291-305.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
La Favor JD, Anderson EJ, Dawkins JT, Hickner RC, Wingard CJ. Exercise prevents Western diet-associated erectile dysfunction and coronary artery endothelial dysfunction: response to acute apocynin and sepiapterin treatment. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2013; 305: R423-34.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Maio MT, Hannan JL, Komolova M, Adams MA. Caloric restriction prevents visceral adipose tissue accumulation and maintains erectile function in aging rats. J Sex Med 2012; 9: 2273-83.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Hannan JL, Heaton JP, Adams MA. Recovery of erectile function in aging hypertensive and normotensive rats using exercise and caloric restriction. J Sex Med 2007; 4: 886-97.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Zhang Q, Radisavljevic ZM, Siroky MB, Azadzoi KM. Dietary antioxidants improve arteriogenic erectile dysfunction. Int J Androl 2011; 34: 225-35.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Aydinoglu F, Yilmaz SN, Coskun B, Daglioglu N, Ogulener N. Effects of ethanol treatment on the neurogenic and endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in the mouse. Pharmacol Rep 2008; 60: 725-34.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Park MG, Ko KW, Oh MM, Bae JH, Kim JJ, et al. Effects of smoking on plasma testosterone level and erectile function in rats. J Sex Med 2012; 9: 472-81.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
O'Leary MP, Althof SE, Cappelleri JC, Crowley A, Sherman N, et al. Self-esteem, confidence and relationship satisfaction of men with erectile dysfunction treated with sildenafil citrate: a multicenter, randomized, parallel group, double-blind, placebo controlled study in the United States. J Urol 2006; 175: 1058-62.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Hatzimouratidis K, Amar E, Eardley I, Giuliano F, Hatzichristou D, et al. Guidelines on male sexual dysfunction: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. Eur Urol 2010; 57: 804-14.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Esposito K, Giugliano D. Healthy lifestyle for metabolic health: no more excuse! Endocrine 2014; 46: 176-8.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Moyad MA, Park K. What do most erectile dysfunction guidelines have in common? No evidence-based discussion or recommendation of heart-healthy lifestyle changes and/or Panax ginseng. Asian J Androl 2012; 14: 830-41.  Back to cited text no. 77
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Calorie restriction reverses age-related alteration of cavernous neurovascular structure in the rat
A. Limanjaya,K.-M. Song,M.-J. Choi,K. Ghatak,N. N. Minh,D. H. Kang,J. Ock,G. N. Yin,H. Y. Chung,J.-K. Ryu,J.-K. Suh
Andrology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Erectile dysfunction
Faysal A. Yafi,Lawrence Jenkins,Maarten Albersen,Giovanni Corona,Andrea M. Isidori,Shari Goldfarb,Mario Maggi,Christian J. Nelson,Sharon Parish,Andrea Salonia,Ronny Tan,John P. Mulhall,Wayne J. G. Hellstrom
Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016; : 16003
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Erectile Dysfunction: A Meta-Analysis
Chunhui Liu,Kai Lu,Tao Tao,Lei Zhang,Xiaowen Zhang,Liang Jiang,Yeqing Huang,Han Guan,Ming Chen,Bin Xu
The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 2015; 12(6): 1319
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Cardiovascular disease and male sexual dysfunction
Martin Miner,EdwardD Kim
Asian Journal of Andrology. 2015; 17(1): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 The association between physical activity and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus of European and South Asian origin: The Oxford Sexual Dysfunction Study
Lasantha S. Malavige,Pabasi Wijesekara,Priyanga Ranasinghe,Jonathan C. Levy
European Journal of Medical Research. 2015; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Epidemiology and...
Effects of Lifes...
Which role for L...
Conclusions
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2564    
    Printed33    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded586    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 5    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]