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Protein-protein interaction in spermatozoa of infertile men

The cover page depicts molecular networks of DEPs generated by Metacore software using a transcription regulation algorithm in immature and mature spermatozoa proteins of infertile men. These proteins were obtained from a three-layer density gradient and analyzed on an LTQ-Orbitrap Elite hybrid mass spectrometer system. Four fractions of spermatozoa (F1-F4); fraction F1 displaying the least mature stage and having the lowest density whereas fraction F4 included the highest density and morphologically mature spermatozoa. The different molecular networks of DEPs were ranked by a value and then gene ontology was used for interpretation. The Metacore pathway analysis predicted the androgen receptor as the major pathway. Chaperone-mediated stress response, sperm function, proteosomal pathway and impaired androgen receptor signaling were identified in the spermatozoa of infertile men. These proteins shed light on the aberrant chaperone expression that may be a contributory factor for defective sperm function and in turn responsible for male infertility. Please refer to pages 121-130 for details.

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